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Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil is the fifth largest country by both area and population. Brazil is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language, and the only one in the Americas. Brazil is the largest country in South America and the fifth largest nation in the world.
It forms an enormous triangle on the eastern side of the continent with a 4,500-mile (7,400-kilometer) coastline along the Atlantic Ocean. It has borders with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador. The Brazilian landscape is very varied. It is most well-known for its dense forests, including the Amazon, the world's largest jungle, in the north. But there are also dry grasslands (called pampas), rugged hills, pine forests, sprawling wetlands, immense plateaus, and a long coastal plain.
Brazil has the world's seventh largest economy by nominal GDP, and the seventh largest by purchasing power parity. The Brazilian economy is characterized by moderately free markets and an inward-oriented economy. Brazil’s economy is the largest of Latin America and the second largest in the Western Hemisphere. From 2000 to 2012, Brazil was one of the fastest-growing major economies in the world, with an average annual GDP growth rate of over 5%, with its economy in 2012 surpassing that of the United Kingdom, making Brazil the world's sixth largest economy. However, Brazil's economy growth has decelerated in 2013 and had almost no liquid growth throughout 2014, and the country's economy is expected to shrink by 4% in 2015.
This nation produced 1 Nobel laureates so far. The Brazilian Research Institute of Neuroscience and Neurotechnology (BRAINN) focuses on the investigation of basic mechanisms leading to epilepsy and stroke, and the injury mechanisms that follow disease onset and progression. Numerous neurology journals are published from brazil with good reputation. This research has important applications related to prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation and will serve as a model for better understanding normal and abnormal brain function.