China, a communist nation in East Asia, is the world’s most populous country. Its vast landscape encompasses grassland, desert, mountain ranges, lakes, rivers and 14,500km of coastline. Beijing, the capital, mixes modern architecture with historic sites including sprawling Tiananmen Square. Its largest city, Shanghai, is a skyscraper-studded global financial center. The iconic Great Wall of China fortification runs east-west across the country's north.
Located in Southeast Asia along the coastline of the Pacific Ocean, China is the world's third largest country, after Russia and Canada. With an area of 9.6 million square kilometers and a coastline of 18,000 kilometers, its shape on the map is like a rooster. It reaches Mohe in Heilongjiang Province as its northern end, Zengmu Ansha (or James Shoal) to the south, Pamirs to the west, and expands to the eastern border at the conjunction of the Heilongjiang (Amur) River and the Wusuli (Ussuri) River, spanning about 50 degrees of latitude and 62 degrees of longitude. China is bordered by 14 countries -- Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Burma, India, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakstan, Mongolia, and Russia. Marine-side neighbors include eight countries -- North Korea, Korea, Japan, Philippines, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam.
Over the past year, the Chinese economy has undergone a period of financial market volatility and economic slowdown. Deep-seated structural problems, including continued overreliance on public investment and exports for growth, a state-controlled financial sector, and regulatory inefficiency, have become more acute. Debt at various levels of the economy has been piling up as well, posing risks to long-term economic expansion. China's socialist market economy is the world's second largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's largest economy by purchasing power parity according to the IMF, although China's National Bureau of Statistics rejects this claim. Until 2015 China was the world's fastest-growing major economy, with growth rates averaging 10% over 30 years. China's investment in research and development (R&D) is second only to the United States.
Over 2009-2014, China’s research and development industry demonstrated impressive growth, at a CAGR of 20% and is projected to grow further at a CAGR of 15%, during 2014-2020. By 2020, China is predicted to outpace Japan and own the second largest research and development industry in the world. Increasing investment in research and development activities, development of highly skilled workforce and new government initiatives are expected to be among the major drivers boosting the technology level in the country. Total expenditure on research and development in China grew from 1.7% of total GDP in 2009 to 2.1% in 2013-2014 – the same level as in Western Europe according to Neurology Journals. The Nobel Prize is a Sweden-based international monetary prize. The award was established by the 1895 will and estate of Swedish chemist and inventor Alfred Nobel. It was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901 presented in Neurology Journals.