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France officially the French Republic. France is a sovereign state including territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European part of France, called metropolitan France, extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. France spans 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and has a total population of 66.6 million.
Two thirds of France is mountains and hills, with the Alps, Pyrenees and Vosges ranges. Mont Blanc in the Alps is the highest mountain in Europe. The Mediterranean coast includes the popular tourist area, the French Riviera. Its hot, dry summers and mild winters make it a popular beach area. The Eiffel Tower is one of France's national landmarks. At 1,050 feet tall, it is one of the world's most recognizable structures.
France has the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal figures and the ninth largest economy by PPP figures. It has the third-largest economy in Europe with Germany and the UK in 1st and 2nd. The OECD is headquartered in Paris, the nation's financial capital.
This nation produced 67 Nobel laureates so far. The history of neurology in France is characterized by the very high degree of centralization in that country where “everything seems to happen in Paris,” and yet the considerable degree of autonomous diversity in the evolution of some other medical schools such as Montpellier and Strasbourg. Numerous neurology journals are published from france with good reputation. It could be argued that France saw the birth of clinical neurology as a separate discipline since Jean Martin Charcot at the Salpêtrière Hospital obtained a chair of diseases of the nervous system in 1892, a first in the history of the academic world.