Australia is a country, and continent, surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans. Its major cities – Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth, Adelaide – are coastal, but its capital, Canberra, is inland and nicknamed the "Bush Capital." The country is known for its Sydney Opera House, Great Barrier Reef, the vast Outback (interior desert wilderness) and unique animal species including kangaroos and duck-billed platypuses.
Australia comprises a land area of about 7.692 million square kilometres. Australia consists of two land masses: mainland Australia and Tasmania. It lies on and extends south from the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere between latitudes 10°41' and 43°39'S and longitudes 113°9' and 153°39'E. It is bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Indian Ocean to the west, the Afarura Sea to the north, and the Southern Ocean to the south. The nearest neighbour is Papua New Guinea, 200 kilometres to the north. Timor Leste is 640 kilometres to the north west, New Zealand is 1920 kilometres east, and Antartica is 2000 kilometres due south.
Australia is highly industrialized, and manufactured goods account for most of the gross domestic product. Its chief industries include mining, food processing, and the manufacture of industrial and transportation equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, machinery, and motor vehicles. Australia has valuable mineral resources, including coal, iron, bauxite, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, natural gas, and petroleum; the country is an important producer of opals and diamonds. The economy of Australia is one of the largest mixed market economies in the world, with a GDP of AUD$1.62 trillion as of 2015. Australia's total wealth is AUD$6.4 trillion. The Research and Development (R&D) Programme supports renewable energy technologies that will increase the commercial deployment of renewable energy technology in Australia. Up to $300 million in grants has been allocated to develop ARENA’s R&D portfolio from 2013 to 2022. Providing support to world-class research and development projects is a key part of ARENA’s strategy to increase the use of renewable energy technologies in Australia by making them competitive with conventional energy sources.
MS Research Australia implements an informed scientific agenda to accelerate advances that will prevent, better treat and ultimately cure multiple sclerosis. The MS Research Australia Scientific Agenda focuses on funding research that will increase our understanding of the biology driving MS and how to stop MS from triggering the disease, causing further damage and how to repair existing damage that can reverse disability according to nutrition journals. This is a medium to long-term strategy. It requires extensive funding, collaboration and coordination with reference to nutrition journals Australia. Feed-in tariffs were introduced by several states to increase the amount of solar PV power generated according to Australia nutrition journals list. The Nobel Prize is an international award for significant achievements and research that benefit humankind and Australia has produced a number of Nobel Laureates over the years which is stated in list of Nutrition journals Australia. Every year since 1901 the Nobel Prize has been awarded for achievements in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and for peace. Since 1915 there have been fifteen Australian winners of the Nobel Prize. The majority of these prizes (eight) have been awarded in the field of Physiology or Medicine, and include the second youngest ever laureate. Most Australians awarded Nobel prizes before the end of the awarding of British/Imperial honours (in 1992) also received (or were offered) knighthoods list of nutrition journals.