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India, officially the Republic of India (IAST: Bh?rat Ga?ar?jya),[c] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west;[d] China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; in addition, India's Andaman and Nicobar Islandsshare a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. Four religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, andSikhism—originated here, whereas Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam arrived in the 1st millennium CE and also shaped the region's diverse culture. India lies on the Indian Plate, the northern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate, whose continental crust forms the Indian subcontinent.
The country is situated north of the equator between 8°4' and 37°6' north latitude and 68°7' and 97°25' east longitude. It is the seventh-largest country in the world, with a total area of 3,287,263 square kilometres (1,269,219 sq mi). India measures 3,214 km (1,997 mi) from north to south and 2,933 km (1,822 mi) from east to west. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km (9,445 mi) and a coastline of 7,517 km (4,671 mi). On the south, India projects into and is bounded by the Indian Ocean – in particular, by the Arabian Sea on the southwest, theLaccadive Sea to the south, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. The Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar separate India from Sri Lanka to its immediate southeast, and the Maldives are some 400 kilometres (250 mi) to the southwest. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands, some 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) southeast of the mainland, share maritime borders with Myanmar,
Thailand andIndonesia. Kanyakumari at 8°4′41″N and 77°32′28″E is the southernmost tip of the Indian mainland, while the southernmost point in India is Indira Point on Great Nicobar Island.Northerenmost point which is under Indian administration is Near Indira Col, Siachen Glacier. India's territorial waters extend into the sea to a distance of 12 nautical miles (13.8 mi; 22.2 km) from the coast baseline India has the one of fastest growing service sectors in the world with annual growth rate of above 9% since 2001, which contributed to 57% of GDP in 2012-13. India has become a major exporter of IT services, BPO services, and softwareservices with $167.0 billion worth of service exports in 2013-14. It is also the fastest-growing part of the economy. The IT industry continues to be the largest private sector employer in India. India is also the fourth largest start-up hub in the world with over 3,100 technology start-ups in 2014-15 The agricultural sector is the largest employer in India's economy but contributes to a declining share of its GDP (17% in 2013-14). India ranks second worldwide in farm output. TheIndustry sector has held a constant share of its economic contribution (26% of GDP in 2013-14). The Indian auto mobile industry is one of the largest in the world with an annual production of 21.48 million vehicles (mostly two and three wheelers) in FY 2013-14. India has $600 billion worth of retail market in 2015 and one of world's fastest growing E-Commerce markets. Overall India-based R&D Globalization and R&D Services market reached US$ 20 [email protected] in 2015, up by 9.9 per cent over 2014. R&D Services market stood at US$ 7.76 billion and R&D Globalisation market (Captives) stood at US$ 12.25 billion. India’s R&D globalisation and services market is set to almost double by 2020 to US$ 38 billion. According to the study, India-based R&D services companies, which account for almost 22 per cent of the global addressed market, grew much faster at 12.67 per cent. The market for Engineering R&D (ER&D) companies in India is mainly structured across pure play PES companies such as Cyient, QuEST, eInfochips and the larger IT companies with a PES play such as Wipro, TCS, HCL. India's ER&D services market is expected to reach US$ 15-17 billion by 2020 and North America continues to be the largest market contributing to 55 per cent of revenues.
Research and Development (R&D) in India is part of NESTLÉ S.A.’s global R&D network and supports all markets worldwide with new product development and manufacturing excellence for Noodles. It is also a Centre of expertise for local Indian cuisine within the NESTLÉ R&D network and offers assistance to Culinary, Confectionery, Nutrition and Dairy products in the South Asia Region (SAR). Better nutrition in the region is a perpetual challenge. Its meaning changes with the stage of development, the degree of social awareness, and scientific advancement. The new NESTLÉ R&D facility in India will help develop great tasting food solutions that are relevant for consumers in the South Asia Region, creating products that take the promise of taste and health to a broader economic and social section than ever before. It will also strengthen NESTLÉ’s position as the leader in Nutrition, Health and Wellness in the emerging markets. NESTLÉ India has always had Research and Development support from the NESTLÉ R&D network across the world. Now, with the new R&D Centre in Manesar, NESTLÉ South Asia Region will benefit from a greater ‘regional consumer’ focus. Having an R&D Centre in India also brings Research and Development closer to NESTLÉ India businesses, and reflects the NESTLÉ spirit of R&D-Business partnership towards developing winning concepts, suited to the local consumer. It will in turn help NESTLÉ R&D to bring out strong local concepts that are in accordance with the NESTLÉ Group ambition to provide ‘affordable Nutrition, Health and Wellness’. Ultimately, these concepts will not just be relevant for emerging markets like India, but could be transferred to NESTLÉ worldwide.