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ISSN: 2573-4555
Journal of Traditional Medicine & Clinical Naturopathy
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Concept of Anagataabhada Pratishedaniya Upakramaniya (The Rules of Hygiene and the Prophylactic Measures) in Ayurveda

Rathod Motilal1*and Geetha B Markande2
1PG Department of Kayachikitsa NIA, Jaipur, India
2PG Department of Kayachikitsa, ALVAS Ayurvedic medical college, Moodbidri, Karnataka, India
Corresponding Author : Rathod Motilal, PhD Scholar
Department of Kayachikitsa NIA, Jaipur, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received September 17, 2012; Accepted October 12, 2012; Published October 15, 2012
Citation: Motilal R, Markande GB (2012) Concept of Anagataabhada Pratishedaniya Upakramaniya (The Rules of Hygiene and the Prophylactic Measures) in Ayurveda. J Homeop Ayurv Med 1:113. doi: 10.4172/2167-1206.1000113
Copyright: © 2012 Motilal R, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

We are living in the twenty first century where man has become his own rival by creating lots of hazards like chemicals, pollution , hybridized food material, unmanaged urbanization, ineffective transformation in life style, inappropriate working patterns etc. These are life style changes, some being good and some being bad. To modify and bring balance to our life on a day to day basis, we need to understand the basic need of constitution, age, environment, life style, food, and occupation. Some of the Ayurvedic easy tips given to bring balance and modification to Prakriti (constitution), Dinacharya (daily regimen), Ritucharya (seasonal regimens), Santarpana (good nourishment), Apatarpana etc. have been discussed. There is a need to identify the multiple risks in the variety of population, so that one can prevent sufferings due to the plethora of disease. These concepts in Ayurvedic treatise are discussed as in Anagataabaadha chikitsa (the rules of hygiene and the prophylactic measures). The different risk factors and its possible management will be discussed in this review article.

Keywords
Anagataabahada; constitution; environment; Prakriti
Introduction
It is a fact that an individual lives amidst multiple risk factors. A person walking on the road is not protected, a person sitting in the office is not secure, a person consuming fast food is welcoming an illness, a person while sleeping may not be in safe hands, and a person while laughing, may show signs of distress. In other words the person either inside or outside the sanctuary is not safe and is likely to have a risk of suffering from illness, either preventable or otherwise. A carpenter is most likely to suffer from respiratory diseases, a field worker may suffer from infections of the leg, and a person playing in the play ground in evening hours may endure Shlipada etc. There is a need to recognize the multiple risks in the variety of population, so that one can perceptively avoid sufferings in a world overwhelmed with disease. These concepts are explored in the Ayurvedic treatise Anagataabaadha Chikitsa.
Constitution
Understanding of Prakriti (constitution) in our literature comprises various meanings. Prakriti represents Doshaja Prakriti (characteristic personality). Doshaja Prakriti is understood by a predominance of a particular Dosha, one of three bodily humors, whose dominancy varies from individual to individual, as is evident.
In an individual having a specific Prakriti (constitution) there is a tendency of developing challenges with relevant Dosha and it is typically the dominant Dosha in the Prakriti that determines the risk of diseases [1]. The risk of Vataja disease is higher in individuals having Vataja Prakriti in comparison to the counter parts. When we speak about Roga Anutpatikara Chikitsa, first and foremost one has to suppress the Dosha involved in the formation of that Prakriti and this requires a proper understanding of certain measures mentioned in the classics.
To give an example in persons having Vata Prakriti; habitual intake of Svadu (sweet), Amla (sour), Lavana (salt), regular practice of Abyanga etc. are beneficial in preventing morbidity. The skin of Vataja Prakriti persons is typically Ruksha (dry) in quality and itself may pose further problems of dryness and cracking. Preventative measures are best treated by Abyanga (oil massage). In a similar manner, predominance of Vatahara food and frequent practice of Vatahara behaviors and lifestyle preventing Vata is more beneficial. Accordingly, the principles of prevention also apply to Pitta and Kapha Prakriti persons.
Age
Ageing is a normal physiological process through which every individual has to stumble upon and the physiology alters during different stages of life. Specific Dosha play a major role in the different phases of life; Kapha during childhood, Pitta during adulthood, Vata in late life is characteristic [2]. The state of Doshas in children show a predominance of Kapha Dosha and the state of dhatu shows the stage of growth [2]. This implies enhanced risk of diseases due to instable Kapha Dosha at this age. On the other hand during adulthood, Pitta dosha shows dominance in sharira kriya (physiology) with the best support of fully developed Dhatu. Even then the increased risk of diseases due to Pitta Dosha cannot be reduced at this age. Likewise in the elderly, predominance of Vata Dosha with the natural course of aging in associated with poor states of Dhatu. Needless to say, elderly people are likely to suffer from diseases due to instable Vata Dosha. In all the life stages, irrespective of the observance of a healthy diet and other habits, there is an increased risk of specific diseases as a usual process.
Taking early age, factors that aggravate the Kapha Dosha has to be prevented. Exposure to cold weather, exposure to frequent showers, and consumption of food like fruits may predispose to an unbalanced Kapha Dosha. This has to be taken into consideration in children to prevent diseases. Warm, properly boiled nutritious food with ample use of ginger and similar Kapha Hara herbs in diet may definitely reduces the risk of diseases [2].
Environment
The life of an individual is in harmonic relation with nature. It has its own cycle, where any disturbance in its cycle is threatening for comfort of life, e.g. an extreme rainy condition in the same season, the perversion of rain in the summer season, hot sunny days in the rainy season, extreme chills in the last season of the year, insufficient cold in the winter, and blistering heat in the wintery weather. Depending upon the Rutus (seasons) one has to protect the body. Extremes of heat, is countered by cold environment. In an extreme cold environment, the body is protected by proper clothing, and cracks on feet are lessened by applying oil. The adaptation of Rutu Charya (seasonal regimen) and Sadvrutta (good conduct) according to the need is prevention [2,3].
Food
All the living creatures are contingent on food as it is the basic necessity for survival. An error in the food habit is either because of ignorance or to an erroneous lifestyle. Over consumption of food and snacks, too spicy food, junk food, fast food, food which is stored for long duration, and stale food are all accepted in the modern, urban advance lifestyle that is deep routed in society. Food habits of present day are against the understanding of Snigdha (unctuous) Ajalpana (dry in nature), Asahana (intolerance) etc., a major risk factor in suffering of lifestyle disorders.
To lead a luxurious life in the present era, money has got precedence, in running after this precedence man has scarcity of time for personal life. This scarcity of time starts in the kitchen, with deliberation towards preserved and baked foods. Company and entertainment causes a person to lose proper acquaintance with food [1-4]. Proper knowledge of ideal food and strictly following the food habits mentioned in the literature is the only way of Vyadi Anutpattikara Chikitsa (preventive measures).
Occupation
In the present scenario the lifestyle of people is full of hectic schedules of training, coding, programming, managing, and much travelling within and outside the country. Trying to keep up the hectic lifestyle, with an active social life full of youthful fun and frolic, people are not focusing on health. Every occupation has its own hazards and one should take ample of precautions for safety. Disease is most likely to occur in certain occupations e.g. prolonged exposure to dust in coal mines, chemical gases in industry manifestations various respiratory conditions, extensive standing in for hotel workers, tutors, and travelers causes peripheral venous diseases. Identifying the implicating effect of the occupation and protecting the body from them is very much essential [1]. Any such occupational effect identified needs to be obstructed by adopting proper Dinacharya (daily regimen), Rutucharya (seasonal regimen), Aachara Rasayana (good conduct) and so on [1].
Life style
There is a close relation between a person’s way of living, energy balance and manifestation of disease. There should be equilibrium between intake and utilization of energy; this depends upon consumption of food and exploitation through physical activities. If food consumption is more and physical activity less, it leads to positive energy imbalance, the same is explained in our classics under the title Santarpana Janitha Vikaras (excessive caloric intake disorders) Prameha (diabetes), Kusta (skin disorder), Mutrakruchra (Dysuria) etc. On the contrary if the intake is less and utilization is more there is a negative energy imbalance. This can be considered under the caption of Apatarpanajanya Vikaras (malnutrition disorders) like Dourbalya (debility), Vinmutra Sangraha (improper bowel and bladder evacuation), Parva asthi Sandhi Bheda (multiple joint pain) etc. Santarpana and Apatarpana Nidana, if identified in any individual, the avoidance of such should be suggested by modification of lifestyle. With positive energy imbalance, modification includes restriction of food, nutritious food replaced by large amount of bland diet, the advice of adequate physical exercise. Treatment modalities of negative energy imbalance include- adequate amount of nutritious food, avoid fasting and eating late and administer Laghu Santarpana (instantaneous nourishing diet).
Discussion
From the forgoing it is clear that every individual has multiple risk factors at every moment for one or the other reason. It may be related to individual constitution, age, environment, occupation, food and lifestyle. These need to be identified and accordingly the change should be made in diet, behavior and life style. While adopting the adjustments one can best follow the principles of Dinacharya (daily regimen), principles of Rutucharya (seasonal regimen), principles of Sad Vrutta (good conduct), principles of Rasayana (anti-aging regimen) and Vajikarana (aphrodisiac) and principles of Aachara Rasayana (good behavioral changes). This is the best way of Roga Anutpadakara Chikitsa. In addition to this, if the morbidity of Dosha has already occurred in the body but the disease yet to occur, one can prevent the regression of Dosha Prakopa to Vyadi (disease) by adopting Shodana (purification) procedure at regular intervals. Prevention is the objective. Dinacharya, Rutucharya, Sadvrutta, Achara Rasayana, Shodana are the methodologies. So, prevention is better than cure is the motto. Optimal health is ultimate result.
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