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Drinking Water Toxicity in Health and Diseases | OMICS International
ISSN: 2167-7719
Air & Water Borne Diseases
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Drinking Water Toxicity in Health and Diseases

Raafat A Mandour*

Toxicology Unit, Emergency Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura35516, Egypt

*Corresponding Author:
Raafat A Mandour
Toxicology Unit, Emergency Hospital
Mansoura University, Mansoura35516, Egypt
Tel: 0020125260108
E-mail:[email protected]

Received Date: February 11, 2013; Accepted Date: May 14, 2013; Published Date: June 04, 2013

Citation: Mandour RA (2013) Drinking Water Toxicity in Health and Diseases. Air Water Borne Diseases 2:107. doi:10.4172/2167-7719.1000107

Copyright: © 2013 Mandour RA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

The quality of the drinking water is a universal health concern. This paper is an attempt to clarify concerns about the quality and safety of drinking water quality both tap and mineral on health of the people living in Dakahlia Governorate-Egypt. Drinking water samples were collected from 14 different locations of Dakahlia Governorate representing 73 samples and 7 samples of mineral water. These samples were analyzed for physicochemical and bacterlogical parameters. The found values of physicochemical and bacterlogical parameters were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) and Egyptian Minstry of Health (EMH) water quality standards.
Study of all these characteristics and correlation studies indicate that in some of the studied areas water was polluted and not suitable for drinking purpose. The drinking water of these areas needs some degree of treatment before consumption and prevention steps to be taken from contamination.

Keywords

Drinking water; Physicochemical parameters; Bacterlogical parameters; Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS)

Introduction

Water is a chief natural resource essential for the existence of life and is a basic human entity. The quality of drinking water is vital concern for mankind since it is directly linked with human health. According to WHO, nearly 80% of all the diseases in human beings are caused by water [1,2]. Chemical contaminants of drinking water are often considered a lower priority than microbial contaminants, as adverse health effects from chemical contaminants are generally associated with long-term exposures, whereas the effects from microbial contaminants are usually immediate. Nonetheless, chemical in water supplies can cause serious problems [3]. Trace metals function mostly as catalysts for enzymatic activity in human bodies; however, their accumulation in the human body causes harmful effects [4]. Availability of safe drinking water is very important. To ensure this, reliance has to be placed on regular bacteriological analyses to assess portability and to determine the best course of action for protecting the population against waterborne diseases [5,6]. Several outbreaks of gastroenteritis and hepatitis [7], giardiosis and cryptosporidiosis [8] in communities with water meeting current regulations [9] have been recorded.

The current study was carried out to evaluate the physiochemical and bacteriological characteristics of drinking water used for human consumption and to what extent the people of Dakahlia Governorate suffer from community health problems.

Study Area

Dakahlia governorate

It is one of the most densely populated governorates in Egypt. It is the fourth Governorate in area after El-Sharqia, El-Behera and Kafr el-Sheikh governorates. It is bounded and then crossed by Damietta Nile branch, dividing it into two parts where Talkha, Bilqas and Sherbin districts in the western side and the other districts, eg; El- Mansoura, El-Manzala, El-Sinbillawin in the eastern side, (Figure 1).

air-water-borne-diseases-dakahlia-governorate

Figure 1: Dakahlia Governorate.

Topography

Dakahlia governorate, in general, is a flat area, triangular in shape with apex in the south and base in the north. It lies between latitudes, 30°30-–31°30- N and longitudes 31° 15-–32° 00- E. It is characterized by a gentle slope to the north. Elevation varies from about 12 m above sea level (a. s. l) in the south to less than 1 m a. s. l. in the north near the sea shore. The cultivated lands possess a network of irrigation and drainage canals related to Damietta branch. It contains some localities less than one meter a. s. l, particularly in the north including Manzala coastal lagoon [10]. High coastal sand dunes protect some localities, but others are flooded by winter surges. The coastal belt can be subdivided into the following three geomorphic units; the extensive back-shore flats, the flooded low lands and the coastal dunes [11].

Water Resources and Hydrogeology

The water resources in the governorate comprise surface and ground waters. The surface water is mainly the River Nile flowing in Damietta branch and its distributaries irrigation canals. The southern part of governorate is supplied by groundwater (Mit-Ghamr, el- Sinbillawin and Aga), and the rest of the governorate is supplied by regional and municipal systems which rely on surface water. Abd el- Daiem [11], stated that about 40 MCM/Y* is used from the main aquifer in Dakahlia Governorate. This amount of water is used for drinking and domestic use at the southern sector of the governorate, particularly at Mit-Ghamr, Aga and El-Sinbillawin districts. This amount of water represents 25% of the used water supply for the whole governorate. However, the gradient of the surface water of the Nile River is toward the north.

Abd el-Daiem et al. [12] reported that at Mit-Ghamr, the surface water level is almost +9 m where it is about +6 m for the surrounding groundwater level, here-in there is downward movement of the surface water to recharge the groundwater from the influent stream in this sector. At Mansoura, the surface water level in the Nile branch is +1.8 m, while it is about +4m in the near-by water wells, where the river is recharged by groundwater and becomes effluent stream in that sector and the Nile branch downstream of Mansoura behaves as a drain. The groundwater slopes towards the north and the direction of flow from the southern recharge area of the Damietta branch and El-Rayah El- Tawfiky to the northern discharged area. The Quaternary succession in the northern Nile Delta area in particular could be subdivided into two water-bearing units according to the stratigraphic succession [13,14]. These two units are mostly separated from each other by a sticky and almost continuous clay layer near the bottom of Bilqas Formation (Holocene) at top. The top unit of Bilqas Formation is considered as an aquitard (semi-previous layers), whiles the lower Mit-Ghamr Formation, and so called sub deltaic layer of [15] is considered as the main aquifer of the Nile Delta. The latter consists of a thick sand and gravel of Pleistocene age with thickness generally decreasing southward but with average thickness more than 700 m in the area of Dakahlia, dominated by permeable sands and gravels with minor clay lenses [13,14].

Material and Methods

Seventy three water samples were collected from 14 different locations of Dakahlia governorate as well as seven different types of mineral water were purchased from local markets, table 1. Heatsterilized bottles of 500 ml capacity were used and the methods of sampling were developed from the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality [3]. Flaming the mouths of taps, and allowing water to run for 1-2 min was done before running it into the bottle. The bottles were delivered to the laboratory and kept in refrigerator at 4°C until the time of analysis.

No District Surface drinking water Drinking groundwater (Wells) Total No of samples
Main Compact
1 El-Mansoura 2 4 -- 8
2 Talkha 1 3 -- 5
3 Dekrnis 1 - -- 2
4 Sherbin 2 1 -- 5
5 Bilqas 1 2 -- 4
6 El-Gamalia 1 - -- 2
7 El-Manzala 1 2 -- 4
8 Nabaru - 1   1
9 Mit-Salsil  - 1   1
10 Minyet el-nasr  - 3   3
11 Temy el-mdid  - 2   2
12 El-Sinbillawin 1 1 2 5
13 Mit-Ghamr - - 13 15
14 Aga - 1 5 9
  Total No of Units 10 21 20  
Mineral water samples 7
Total No of Samples 20 21 25 73

Table 1: Localities of the different drinking water samples in Dakahlia governorate.

Results and Discussion

Physiochemical Evaluation

The physiochemical obtained data on analysis of the collected water samples were tabulated in (Tables 2-6). Table 2 represents analysis of drinking water samples of the main surface water stations. Table 3 represents the polluted drinking water samples of compact units. Table 4 represents the polluted drinking water samples of groundwater. Table 5 represents the results of different types of mineral water. Table 6 represents the polluted drinking water samples by some heavy metals which exceed than the permissible limits of [3,16].

NO District / samplename pH EC µm/cm at 25 °C TDSppm THppm Cl2 ppm Cl-ppm SO4- -ppm Alkal.Ppm
WHO (20011) 6.5 – 8   1000 500 5 250 250  
EMH (2007) 6.5 – 8.5   1000 500 5 250 250  
I

El-Mansoura district

1-Main station1 7.75 444 288.6 144 0.66 35.45 75 150
2-Network1 7.85 450 292.5 140 0.52 34.75 81.73 14 0
3-Main station2 7.69 443 288 136 1.56 34.73 99 145
4-Network2 7.6 446 290 137 1 .5 34.03 80 140
II

Talkha district

5-Main station 7.68 425 276.3 144 1.95 35.45 60 146
6-Network 7.75 436 283.4 136 1.3 34.03 46 142
III

Dekernis district

7-Main station 7.65 428 278.2 132 0.53 32.6 90 135
8-Network 7.72 461 269.6 142 0.33 34.03 78.85 150
IV

Sherbin district

9-Main station1 7.74 438 284.7 137 1.5 34.03 56 155
10-Network1 7.41 433 281.5 141 1.35 33.33 44 152
11-Main station2 7.73 435 282.2 128 0.6 36.9 75 150
12-Network2 7.8 460 299 140 0.33 38.28 60.57 175
VI

Bilqas district

13-Main station 7.76 477 310.1 144 0.64 35.45 96.15 155
14-Network 7.81 475 308.7 140 0.41 38.3 86.54 150
VI

El-Gamalia district

15-Main station 7.73 435 282.7 134 0.57 35.45 79.81 125
16-Network 7.62 438 284.7 130 0.36 32.6 86.5 150
VII

El-Manzala district

17-Main station 7.45 390 253 124 0.08 20 35 130
18-Network 7.75 393 255 136 0.18 33 53 151
VIII

El-Sinbillawin district

19-Main station 7.35 430 275 135 0.76 36.1 76 120
20-Network 7.12 434 280 130 0.32 32.1 85 144

Table 2: Results of Physiochemical analyses (mg / l) of the main surface drinking water stations.

NO District / sample name pH EC µm/cm at 25 °C TDSppm THppm Cl2 ppm Cl-ppm SO4- -ppm Alkal.Ppm
I El-Mansoura district
1-Awish el-hagar 7.53 486 315.9 150 0.4 35 43 148
2-Mahalet damana 7.82 420 273 126 0.28 32 52 136
3-Shoha 7.7 371 241 130 0.12 30 44 131
4-El-Rydania 7.77 410 266 130 0.21 40 56 143
II Talkha district
5-Mit-antar 7.46 445 298.5 145 1.5 34.03 65 156
6-Mit-elkorama 7.63 486 315.9 150 0.5 31 67 140
7-Demera 7.74 468 304.2 130 0.45 35 46 120
III Sherbin district
8-Ras el-khalig 7.72 498 323.7 140 0.6 46 57 133
IV Bilqas district
9-El-satamony 7.99 385 256 135 0.4 30 36 141
10-Basindela 7.46 410 266.5 135 0.15 30 62 130
V El-Manzala district
11-El-aziza 7.79 379 246 140 0.1 28 45 145
12-El-Mawaged 7.44 375 243 132 0.48 30 45 140
VI Nabaru district
13-Nabaru 7.67 480 312 140 0.71 50 60 145
VII Mit-Salsil district
14-Mit-Salsil 7.9 447 290.5 140 0.66 34 57 180
VIII Minyet el-nasr district
15-Minyet el-nasr 7.5 431 281.2 130 0.8 30 47 136
16-Mit-asim 7.65 360 234 132 0.08 30 35 135
17-Brembal 7.65 410 266.5 135 0.3 43 38 141
IX Temy el-amdid district
18-Temy el-amdid 7.76 454 295.1 160 0.43 38 51 150
19-Abo-dawoud 8.01 432 280.8 146 0.3 36 42 150
X El-Sinbillawin district
20-Barqin 7.73 359 233 135 0.4 30 45 140
XI Aga district
21-Nawasa 7.53 398 259 130 0.12 21 30 140

Table 3: Results of Physiochemical analyses (mg / l) of the surface drinking water compact units.

NO District / sample name pH EC µm/cm at 25°C TDSppm THppm Cl2 ppm Cl-ppm SO4- -ppm Alkal.Ppm
I El-Sinbillawin district
II 1-Network of Mit-ghorab 7.85 376 245 135 0.05 41 48 133
2-Karkera well 7.7 349 226.8 120 0.13 32 46 133
Mit-ghamr district
3-Network of Mit-nagy 7.94 828 538 160 - 53 81 160
4-Network of Tafahna el-Ashraf 8.14 522 340 140 1.1 42 63 145
5-El-Maasara well 8.06 460 499 138 0.2 36 70 140
6-Network of El-Maasara 7.94 389 258 130 0.09 32 40 132
7-Network of Mit-Mohsen 8.32 566 268 145 0.12 40 51 148
8-Atmeda well 8.08 480 312 152 0.92 35 48 145
9-Mit-ghamr well after Cl2 7.88 437 284.1 52.9 0.71 33.33 152 160
10-Network of Mit-ghamr 7.93 396 257.4 38.5 0.53 18.54 138 170
11-Mit–elkorashi well 7.8 430 279.5 120 0.12 30 51 140
12-El-Rahmania well 7.6 352 228.8 130 - 41 70 123
13-Damas well 7.9 610 369.5 170 0.4 42 178 178
14-Network of Sampomakam 8.1 326 212 132 0.12 40 51 128
15-Mit-el ezz well 7.91 410 266.5 128 0.11 38 66 120
16-Hala well 7.68 422 274.3 155 0.39 38 145 145
17-Sahragt el-kobra well 7.82 455 295.7 160 0.43 33 140 140
III Aga district
18-Miyet Sammanoud well before Cl2 8.24 1111 722.1 153.8 - 151.7 132 250
19-Miyet Sammanoud well after Cl2 7.86 1163 755.9 205 0.77 151.7 142 300
20-Network of Miyet Sammanoud 7.92 1128 733.2 192.3 0.59 150.2 120 245
21-Ikhtab well 8.67 650 422 140 - 35 58 158
22-Mit EL-Amil well 8.54 937 609 140 - 43 58 150
23-Aga el-gadida  well after Cl2 8.26 761 494.6 50 0.62 112 32 205
24-Network of Aga el-gadida 8.28 766 497.9 78 0.52 105 18 205
25-Tanamil well 8.59 1266 822.9 335 0.58 98 260 260

Table 4: Results of Physiochemical analyses (mg / l) of the drinking groundwater samples.

District / sample name pH EC µm/cm at 25 °C TDS ppm TH ppm Cl2 ppm Cl- ppm SO4- - ppm Alkal. Ppm
1-B araka 7.96 700 455 290 - 110 96 300
2-Nestlhi 7.25 410 266.5 140 - 152 44 150
3-Safi 7.35 299 194.3 50 - 80 29 50
4-Shwepes 7.66 501 325.6 130 - 130 56 145
5-Dasani 7.12 282 183.3 110 - 40 30 112
6-Hayat 7.45 302 196.3 50 - 68 31 60
7-Siwa 7.44 303 197 40 - 86 31 45

Table 5: Results of Physiochemical analyses (mg / l) of the different types of mineral drinking water.

NO District / sample name Cd Cu Zn Cr Ni Pb Mn Fe Co
Permissible limit of WHO (20011) 0.003 2.0 3.0 0.05 0.07 0.01 0.4 0.3 0.05
Permissible limit of EMH (2007) 0.003 2.0 3.0 . 0.05 0.02 . 0.01 0.4 0.3 0.05
I El-Mansoura district
1-Main station1 0.002 0.001 0.012 0.002 0.008 0.001 0.001 0.004 0.002
2-Network 1 0.003 0.001 0.004 0.001 0.003 0.0 0.0 0.003 0.001
3-Mahalet damana 0.001 0.001 0.006 0.005 0.006 0.002 0.0 0.004 0.001
4-Network of Shoha Station 0.0 0.014 0.116 0.008 0.022 0.016 0.010 0.023 0.0
5-El-Rydania 0.001 0.001 0.007 0.005 0.002 0.0 0.001 0.003 0.001
II

Talkha district

6-Mit-antar 0.011 0.002 0.013 0.008 0.013 0.033 0.011 0.001 0.0
7-Demera 0.032 0.001 0.005 0.003 0.007 0.025 0.004 0.002 0.004
III

Dekernis district

8-Network 0.0 0.001 0.008 0.001 0.011 0.003 0.0 0.002 0.001
IV

Sherbin district

9-Main station 1 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.006 0.008 0.002 0.0 0.001 0.001
10-Network1 0.005 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.022 0.0 0.001 0.002 0.001
V

Bilqas district

11-Main station 0.005 0.0 0.0 0.001 0.009 0.0 0.0 0.002 0.001
12-Network 0.007 0.0 0.001 0.005 0.005 0.0 0.001 0.003 0.001
13-El-satamony 0.007 0.001 0.001 0.0 0.010 0.003 0.0 0.001 0.002
VI

El-Gamalia district

14-Network 0.010 0.001 0.006 0.001 0.021 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001
VII

El-Manzala district

15-Main station 0.003 0.002 0.003 0.001 0.009 0.003 0.004 0.020 0.002
16-El-Mawaged 0.002 0.001 0.052 0.003 0.008 0.0 0.001 0.007 0.001
VIII

Nabaru district

17-Nabaru 0.001 0.0 0.014 0.004 0.006 0.028 0.012 0.001 0.0
IX

Minyet el-nasr district

18-Mit-asim 0.005 0.0 0.012 0.0 0.018 0.003 0.001 0.011 0.001
19-Brembal 0.001 0.001 0.009 0.002 0.005 0.0 0.0 0.005 0.001
X

Temy el-amdid district

20-Abo-dawoud 0.003 0.001 0.003 0.003 0.008 0.001 0.0 0.005 0.0
XI

El-Sinbillawin district

21-Main station 0.002 0.0 0.003 0.0 0.008 0.004 0.0 0.003 0.002
22-Network of Mit-ghorab  0.002 0.0 0.060 0.004 0.012 0.001 0.001 0.0 0.001
XII

Mit-ghamr district

23-Network of Mit-nagy 0.002 0.0 0.005 0.0 0.017 0.003 0.033 0.012 0.002
24-Network of Tafahna el-Ashraf well 0.002 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.007 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.001
25-Network of Mit-Mohsen well 0.005 0.0 0.002 0.003 0.011 0.0 0.001 0.002 0.002
26-Atmeda well 0.007 0.0 0.005 0.004 0.007 0.0 0.014 0.038 0.002
27-Mit-ghamr well after Cl2 0.003 0.001 0.012 0.001 0.014 0.002 0.014 0.011 0.001
28-Damas well 0.019 0.002 0.018 0.022 0.015 0.029 0.009 0.001 0.0
29-Mit-el ezz well 0.0 0.027 0.032 0.004 0.021 0.001 0.0 0.008 0.0
30-Sahragt el-kobra 0.027 0.001 0.019 0.005 0.007 0.037 0.005 0.002 0.0
XIII

Aga district

31-Nawasa 0.001 0.001 0.0 0.001 0.001 0.004 0.001 0.005 0.015
32-Ikhtab well 0.007 0.001 0.001 0.0 0.013 0.003 0.0 0.002 0.001
33-Mit EL-Amil 0.007 0.001 0.0 0.002 0.005 0.001 0.0 0.001 0.001
34-Aga el-gadida  well after Cl2* 0.006 0.0 0.001 0.002 0.020 0.002 0.0 0.002 0.001
35-Network of Aga el-gadida 0.005 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.021 0.001 0.004 0.005 0.001

Mineral drinking water

36-B araka 0.002 0.003 0.009 0.001 0.005 0.001 0.001 0.004 0.0
37-Nestlh 0.002 0.003 0.031 0.0 0.002 0.002 0.0 0.004 0.0
38-Safi 0.0 0.002 0.041 0.002 0.004 0.0 0.001 0.007 0.0
39-Shwepes 0.002 0.002 0.012 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.005 0.005 0.0
40-Dasani 0.001 0.002 0.032 0.004 0.002 0.0 0.004 0.010 0.0
41-Hayat 0.0 0.003 0.008 0.001 0.004 0.0 0.0 0.004 0.0
42-Siwa 0.002 0.001 0.022 0.0 0.005 0.001 0.005 0.008 0.0

Table 6: Results of heavy metals (mg / l) of some different drinking water samples

The tabulated and represented data are showing that pH of the drinking water samples in Temy el-amdid district; Abo-dawoud compact unit, Table (3) and Mit-ghamr district; Network of Tafahna el-Ashraf well, El-Maasara well, Network of Mit-Mohsen well, Atmeda well and Network of Sampomakam well and Aga district; Miyet Sammanoud well before chlorine addition, Ikhtab well, Mit EL-Amil well, Aga el-gadida well after chlorine addition, Network of Aga el-gadida well and Tanamil well, table 4 are higher than the safety base line value according to [3]. Each of Cd, Ni and Pb ions are greater than their safety base line values, table 6 according to [3,16]. In El-Mansoura district; Network of Shoha compact unit shows high values of Ni and Pb and in Talkha district; Mit-antar and Demera compact units show high values of Cd and Pb and in Sherbin district; Network of main station1shows high values of Cd and Ni and in Bilqas district; main station, network of main station and El-satamony compact unit show high value of Cd and In El-Gamalis district; network of main station shows high value of Cd and Ni and In Nabaru district; Nabaru compact unit shows high value of Pb and In Miyet el-nar; Mit asm compact units shows high value of Cd and In Mit-ghamr district; Network of Tafahna el-Ashraf well, Atmeda well, Damas well show high value of Cd as well as high value of Pb in Damas well and Sahragt Elkobra well, Mit-el-ezz well shows high value of Ni and In Aga district; Ikhtab well, Mit-el-amil well, Aga el-gadida well after chlorine addition and network of Aga el-gadida well show high value of Cd as well as high value of Ni in network of Aga el-gadida well.

The great difference between the assayed concentrations and the acceptable limits may be ascribed to the geological characteristics of the studied area or to the unbounded amounts of phosphates fertilizers and so many types of pesticides used in the agriculture activities may also led to the high concentrations of Cd and Ni in drinking water in this area. The contamination of water is directly related to the degree of contamination of our environment. Rainwater collects impurities while passing through the air. Streams and rivers collect impurities from surface run off and through the discharge of sewage, industrial and agriculture effluents. These are carried to the rivers, lakes or reservoirs that supply our drinking water [17]. In general, a strong relationship between contaminated drinking water with heavy metals and chronic diseases such as renal failure, liver cirrhosis, hair loss and chronic anemia has been identified [18]. These diseases are apparently related to the contamination of drinking water with heavy metals. Renal failure is related to the contamination of drinking water with Cd and Pb. Hair loss to the contamination with Ni and chronic anemia to the contamination with Cd. In addition, examples of chronic health effects include cancer, birth defects, organ damage, and disorders of nervous system and damage of immune system [19]. Cadmium appears to accumulate with age progress especially in the kidney and it is considered as carcinogenic.

It was reported that [20] the geochemical implications of Cd in human health related to bone and renal failure in populations drinking contaminated water. Toxicity of nickel is enhanced in presence of some other metals in drinking water. Hair loss and derma toxicity in hypersensitive are related to contaminated drinking water with nickel. High concentration of lead in the body can cause death or permanent damage to the central nervous system, the brain and kidney [21]. The damage commonly results in behavior and learning problems. Such problems are hyperactivity, memory and concentration problems, high blood pressure, hearing problems, headaches, slowed growth, reproductive problems in men and women, digestive problems, muscle and joint pain. Lead is considered the most health threat for children

Bacteriological Evaluation

Infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria, viruses and parasites are the most common and widespread health risk associated with drinking water. The elimination of all these agents from drinking water has a high priority. The provision of a safe supply of drinking water depends upon use of either a protected high-quality ground water or a properly selected and operated series of treatments capable to reduce pathogens and other contaminants to the negligible health risk [22]. The results revealed that samples of Network of Shoha Station, Mitghorab well, El-Rahmania well, Mit-el ezz well and Miyet Sammanoud well before addition of chlorineall contain high numbers of Total count of Bacteria and exceed the permissible limit recommended by [16]. Many researchers got the fact that such high records of diarrheic cases and renal colics and failures were associated with water treatment and distribution system deficiencies [23-25]. Natural untreated water is a good source for pathogenic bacteria; Aderson [26] found that the lack of chlorination supply has been blamed for the rapid spread of cholera in Peru. Payment et al. [27] in an epidemiological study confirmed that tap water is a significant source of gastrointestinal illnesses (14-40%).

The data obtained in this study support the need for monitoring drinking water especially groundwater and compact units that will be consumed by the people of Dakahlia Governorate. Different types of mineral water are good, no pollution either physiochemical or bacteriological and safe for drinking purposes. In conclusion, the obtained results suggested a recommendation for the new treatment and distribution systems of investigated suspicious water is needed to prevent human illness.

Acknowledgements

I am appreciating for every person help me to finish this work.

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