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ISSN: 2157-7617
Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change
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Fishery Potential of Mallipattinam Coast, South East Coast of India

Varadharajan D* and Soundarapandian P
Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamil Nadu, India
Corresponding Author : Varadharajan D
Faculty of Marine Sciences, Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology
Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamil Nadu, India
Tel: 04144-243223
E-mail: [email protected]
Received June 20, 2015; Accepted July 16, 2015; Published July 26, 2015
Citation: Varadharajan D, Soundarapandian P (2015) Fishery Potential of Mallipattinam Coast, South East Coast of India. J Earth Sci Clim Change 6: 285. doi:10.4172/2157-7617.1000285
Copyright: © 2015 Varadharajan D, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Fishes have a variety of size, colors, attractive and behaviors in the aquatic ecosystem. Consumption is therefore increasing rapidly in many countries, but the importance of fish in daily diet is not yet fully realized. It is still a supplemental diet to a large section, mainly considered low weight of rich and delicious food items. It contains high nutrients like calcium, cobalt, iron, iodine, phosphorus and vitamins. These are all the nutrients needed to meet the demand of the body with the control cholesterol levels in the blood and to produce immune power. The data on landing of fishes are helpful for food security and fisherman welfare. In the present study the fisheries data were considered on landing of Mallipattinam coast for one year. During the study period, there four different major groups of fishes recorded; pelagic fishes, demersal fishes, crustaceans and Mollusks viz., 40.9%, 19.9%, 13.3%, 8.3%, 9.2% respectively. Anthropogenic disturbances and climate changes are adversely affecting the fish populations and diversity.

Keywords
Crustaceans; Data; Demersal; Fishes; Fisheries; Molluscs; Pelagic
Introduction
Fish is a food source, economic commodity and biological necessity to both the developed and developing world. It is a good source of protein, calcium, vitamins and essential fatty acids, as well as other elements crucial to good nutrition. Ocean was considered as common and fishery resources are vital source of food and make valuable economic contributions to the local communities [1]. They provide a livelihood and income for millions of the world’s poorest people and also contribute by means of export, trade, tourism and recreation. The marine fisheries of India restricted to the inshore waters of continental shelf. The major fishery involves pelagic and demersal fishes, crustaceans and mollusks. The fishery statistics data collection in the country is complicated, landing platforms and harbors are scattered along the entire coasty line. Within the coastal waters the distribution of fishery resource shows variation with distance from the shore. A few works have been done the fishery resources potential of Indian waters [2-4]. The fishery resources station in Mallipattinam landing centre of south east coast of India. In the present study, an attempt was made the fishery resources of Mallipattinam area (Table 1).
Materials and Methods
Mallipattinam (10°16’35” N; 79°19’12” E) is one of the small fish landing centres situated in Thanjavur district. The fishery data were collected watching the landing of fishes and the interviewing fisherman personally. The fishes landed were identified with help of standard books as [5,6] and also the manual for identification of fishes from California coastal waters [7] and the fishery data were collected for all the months of the except for April 16 to May 30.
Results and Discussion
The fishes landed in Mallipattinam landing centres for one year, the categorised in four major groups’ contributed viz., pelagic fishes, demersal fishes, crustaceans, and Mollusks viz., 40.9%, 19.9%, 13.3%, 8.3%, 9.2% respectively. The total number of fishing days was calculated by 264 days and the effort expanded concerned 204.909 boat trips and average of 89 trips per day. The landing of pelagic, Demersal, crustaceans, Molluscs and miscellaneous was for one year from September 2008 to August 2009. Pelagic trawlers and gill nets were used to collect the pelagic fishes. The major proportion of pelagic fishes, three major groups exploited include Clupoids, Scamberoids and Carangids by [8]. The oil Sardinella longiceps is a major fishery in south east coast and also reported in Karwar coastal region [9]. It was abundant more during the month of July to October. The maximum landed in fishes in the month of June and overall annual catch of 2, 17,808 kgs [10]. Oil sardine is largely available fishes in Indian coast are previously reported by [11]. Anchovies (Thryssa spp) were also more abundant in the month of December 8542 kg, half beaks and full beaks (Hemiramphids and Belonids) were landed less 2142 kg. The Silago sihama was available (8451 kg) in good quantity in almost all the months, Aug, Oct and September. Ribbon fishes (Trichiurus lepturus and Lepturacanthus savala) were found throughout year and peak of month March, Trichiurus lepturus was heavily exploited in the fishing ground [12].
Carangids contributed a good percentage the pelagic fishes. Among the scads (Deccaptures ruselli) and Horse mackerel (Megalaspis cordyla) available throughout the year with their peaks in the month of March and April. Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) major part of the in the pelagic fishes [8] peaks in March and April, Seer fishes (Scomberomonus spp), were landed in good counts during December to March maximum in 2783 kg. Tunas (Euthynnus affinis and Thunnus spp) are ranked by first place after Indian mackerel Indian Ocean [13], among the Scamberoids landings throughout the year. Peak season recorded was from June to September. Barracuda (Sphyraena spp) showed highest landings in the month of June to October; Mullets was recorded more in month of September to February, and maximum landed in the month of February 5421kg. Among the eighteen types of pelagic fishes landed, Sardinella longiceps, Carangids and Rastrelliger kanagurta were found in common while the groups and pomfrets were rare. The pelagic fishes overall maximum landed in the month of January (100,373.5 kg) and then minimum landed in the month of April (45,240 kg).
Sharks (Scoliodon spp and Sphyrna spp) were found them throughout the year. Maximum 7452 kg October to February, peak in January, Skates (Rhyncobatus spp) were recorded in less amount compared to sharks, and skates were more during the period August to December, maximum in September, 4783 kg [14,15]. Rays (Rhinoptera spp, Gymnura spp and Narcine etc.,) were found dominant among the Elasmobranchs. These were available throughout the year maximum landed in Oct 16582 kg. Eels (Longer cinereous and Anguilla spp) and were mainly dried. Found in months and like fishing January in high (2785 kg). Catfishes (Arius spp) levels quantity is mainly from the hook and line fishing, highest levels, 2140 kg in month of October. Croakers (Johinus spp) maximum in month of October 9452 kg perches (Epinephelus spp and lutjanus spp) were caught maximum in July (2452 kg). Silver bellies (Leiognathus spp and Gazza spp) and were abundant among the demersal fisheries, maximum in the month of September 2789 kg landed. Pomfrets (Pampus spp, Parastromateus sp and Solea sp etc.,) maximum landed September 2214 kg [16]. The demersal fishes overall maximum landed in the month of October (51,084 kg) and then minimum landed in the month of April (22,999 kg) (Table 2).
The crabs are caught either by conventional crab pots, or by tangle nets. In the seashore a very large number of different species of crabs are found, but most of them are small in size and therefore rarely used for human consumption. Most dominant crab species in Mallipattinam coastal Portunus pelagicus and P. sanguinolentus were landed on throughout the year the previously reported by [17]. These two crabs are found in large quantities along the Tamil Nadu coast and the fishery is round the year [17,18]. Perhaps the only shore crabs still caught in great numbers are the mangrove crab Scylla serrata and S. tranqubarica which occurs in the coastal and throughout the muddy bottom of intertidal and subtidal zones of this coastal environment, mud crab landing were local markets [19], reported that after Tsunami December 2004. The crab P. gladiator, Charybdis species landed Minimum quantity [17]. Mostly Charybdis feriata landed in maximum and also other species of Charybdis lucifera, C. variegata, C. natator, C. truncata, C. granulata and Podophthalmus vigil, also landed in seasonally very low percentage of this coastal environment. Crabs probably contributed to the increasing availability of crabs with the size range of 9-15 cm [17,20,21]. The commercial significant species including Penaeus indicus, P. japonicus, P. monodon, P. semisulcatus, P. chinensis, P. merquiensis and Metapenaeus dobsonii and M. ensis were recorded in Mallipattinam. The shrimps were caught by beam trawling boats which tow a number of bottom dredges along the surface of the mud. Among shrimps Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus dobsonii was contained maximum is in agreement with the observation made by [22] in Cuddalore waters. Some shrimps are caught in the deep bay marshes where they constitute some 13.3% of the total catch [23,24]. The crustacean’s maximum landed in overall in the month of June (38,464 kg) and then minimum quantity of landed in the month of April (15,624 kg) (Table 3).
The Cephalopods form an important seafood variety as they are valued in the inter market. According to [25], Cephalopods resources had no potential value and organized fishery in India. Cephalopods have a significant contribution to the total annual fish landings of coastal with some local potential for expansion [26]. Of which, squids are of major importance in Mallipattinam [27]. Mainly Loligo edulis and L. forosana, which are caught by pair and stern trawlers with its peak during summer. Similarly, cuttlefish has the production of about 1,957 kg worth. The landings are mainly composed of Sepia pharaonis, S. recurvirostra, S. lycidas and S. aculeata etc., which are caught by pair and stern trawlers on the continental shelf, while Octopus are of minor importance among cephalopods and also potential of marine resource reported in south west coast of India [28]. The molluscs maximum landed in overall in the month of June (20,657 kg) and then minimum quantity of landed in the month of April (9,652 kg) (Table 4).
The fisheries sector occupies a very important place in the socioeconomic development of the country. Mallipattinam is one of the main fishing centres in Tamil Nadu, contributing its mite to the fishery economy. The trawlers in Mallipattinam concentrate more on pelagic fishes, demersal fishes, than on the crustaceans, cephalopods, molluscs, the pelagic fishes mainly caught by the gill nets. In Mallipattinam the crowded fishing efforts has led to lesser catch per boat trip. In these areas, catamarans are very small level operated. Mainly catch of fishes using in Mechanized boats and FRB boats. During the study period, total landing of fishes in Mallipattinam (September 2008 to August 2009) were 98, 7, 215kg (40.9%) for pelagic fishes, 46,0782.5 kg (19.9 %) for demersal fishes, 3,21,747 kg (13%) for crustaceans, 20,1283 kg (17%) for Molluscs, and 2,21,882 kg (9.9%) for miscellaneous. Mechanized trawlers contributed 53% to the catch, with FRB boat 34% and other large and small boats 12% in this period. The estimated marine fish landings of Tamil Nadu were 4, 12, 066 t during 2007. The catch increased by 14.7% from 2006. Among the pelagic, sardines dominated the landings (1, 13,931 t) followed by carangids (24,698 t), [10]. So the contributions of Mallipattinam total landing Pelagic, Demersal fishes, Crustaceans and Molluscs in the month of June (2, 17,808 kg) maximum landed and then minimum in April (10, 8,036 kg) landed (Table 5).
The present study, fishing activity and hence most of the wild resources are under heavy exploitation now [17,29]. Preliminary assessment of fisheries resources of the Andaman coast in early January 2005 indicated that fisheries resources in some areas declined by half after the tsunami. The ancient tradition of fishing by using the traditional devices like Pari, Katcha, Ootha, Sorati, Catamaran and Karaivalai have become sustainable way of harvesting inland and marine life without damaging the environment of coral mangrove, wetland and sea-grass bed habitats. These traditional fishing practices are more important in the issue of environmental pollution control and biodiversity conservation. These eco-friendly techniques are to be documented, preserved, protected and promoted for future use. The coast of Mallipattinam supports a major fishery along southeast coast of India. The fisheries do much help to meet the continuously increasing demand for food. Estimates indicate that the world catch of fish today could supply about 70% of the animal protein requirements of the present populations. The increased demand for fishes in different markets and the depletion of resources along the coast necessitated an urgent need for promoting conservation and management. Peoples are discussed about the challenges and opportunities of marine capture fisheries in India. There is still information needed for successful management. However the fishery management is much more than research. Fishes do not even cry in dying hours, but people are crying daily due to droughts.
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