alexa Fishery Potential of Mallipattinam Coast, South East Coast of India

ISSN: 2157-7617

Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change

  • Research Article   
  • J Earth Sci Clim Change 2015, Vol 6(6): 285
  • DOI: 10.4172/2157-7617.1000285

Fishery Potential of Mallipattinam Coast, South East Coast of India

Varadharajan D* and Soundarapandian P
Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamil Nadu, India
*Corresponding Author: Varadharajan D, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamil Nadu, India, Tel: 04144-243223, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Jun 20, 2015 / Accepted Date: Jul 16, 2015 / Published Date: Jul 26, 2015

Abstract

Fishes have a variety of size, colors, attractive and behaviors in the aquatic ecosystem. Consumption is therefore increasing rapidly in many countries, but the importance of fish in daily diet is not yet fully realized. It is still a supplemental diet to a large section, mainly considered low weight of rich and delicious food items. It contains high nutrients like calcium, cobalt, iron, iodine, phosphorus and vitamins. These are all the nutrients needed to meet the demand of the body with the control cholesterol levels in the blood and to produce immune power. The data on landing of fishes are helpful for food security and fisherman welfare. In the present study the fisheries data were considered on landing of Mallipattinam coast for one year. During the study period, there four different major groups of fishes recorded; pelagic fishes, demersal fishes, crustaceans and Mollusks viz., 40.9%, 19.9%, 13.3%, 8.3%, 9.2% respectively. Anthropogenic disturbances and climate changes are adversely affecting the fish populations and diversity.

Keywords: Crustaceans; Data; Demersal; Fishes; Fisheries; Molluscs; Pelagic

Introduction

Fish is a food source, economic commodity and biological necessity to both the developed and developing world. It is a good source of protein, calcium, vitamins and essential fatty acids, as well as other elements crucial to good nutrition. Ocean was considered as common and fishery resources are vital source of food and make valuable economic contributions to the local communities [1]. They provide a livelihood and income for millions of the world’s poorest people and also contribute by means of export, trade, tourism and recreation. The marine fisheries of India restricted to the inshore waters of continental shelf. The major fishery involves pelagic and demersal fishes, crustaceans and mollusks. The fishery statistics data collection in the country is complicated, landing platforms and harbors are scattered along the entire coasty line. Within the coastal waters the distribution of fishery resource shows variation with distance from the shore. A few works have been done the fishery resources potential of Indian waters [2-4]. The fishery resources station in Mallipattinam landing centre of south east coast of India. In the present study, an attempt was made the fishery resources of Mallipattinam area (Table 1).

Pelagic fishes September October November December January February March April June July August Total
Oil sardine 12452 12230 12451 12875 15425 13452 12784 6854 12473 13425 17258 141679
Other sardine 14521 15421 13254 13223 16241 14523 13254 5652 13254 16542 15423 151308
Stolephirus 8798 8457 10452 11875 14523 11742 13452 4521 14252 13245 12451 123768
Thryssasp 7542 6542 6325 8542 7845 6854 6541 2652 5468 6752 7214 72277
Halfbeak and full beak 6751 6325 7115 7532 7965 7451 7245 2142 7541 7985 8451 76503
Scared whiting 3425 3754 3652 4521 4382 4457 4861 2975 4751 4535 5462 46775
Ribbon fish 5314 5745 5231 4235 4521 5471 6542 1978 6214 5241 3385 53877
Scads 2985 2653 2875 2754 2653 2735 2353 1863 2583 2422 2663 28539
Horse mackerel 1675 1554 1879 1962.5 2241 2531 1987 1245 3452 2874 2341.5 23742
Other carangids 1594 1987 2235 1752 2178 2361 2452 1532 2153 2023 2742 23009
Indian mackerel 7652 7754 7847 7531 7986 7133 7055 2745 7981 7423 7552 78659
Seer fish 1654 2477 2351 1584 1823.5 1548 2783 1521 1453 2651.5 1762 21608
Tunnids 7545 7845 7546 7254 7354 7124 7354 4521 7235 7451 7245 78474
Barracudas 2145 2455 2352 1658 1455 2278 2102 2455 2241 2385 2356.5 23882.5
Mullets 3452 3771 3365 5015 3781 5421 3254 2584 5265 4553 2652 43113
Total 87,505 88,970 88,930 92,313.5 100,373.5 95,081 94,019 45,240 96,316 99,507.5 98,958 98,7213.5

Table 1: The landing of pelagic fishes (Kg) at Mallipattinam landing centre for the period of one year September 2007-August 2008

Materials and Methods

Mallipattinam (10°16’35” N; 79°19’12” E) is one of the small fish landing centres situated in Thanjavur district. The fishery data were collected watching the landing of fishes and the interviewing fisherman personally. The fishes landed were identified with help of standard books as [5,6] and also the manual for identification of fishes from California coastal waters [7] and the fishery data were collected for all the months of the except for April 16 to May 30.

Results And Discussion

The fishes landed in Mallipattinam landing centres for one year, the categorised in four major groups’ contributed viz., pelagic fishes, demersal fishes, crustaceans, and Mollusks viz., 40.9%, 19.9%, 13.3%, 8.3%, 9.2% respectively. The total number of fishing days was calculated by 264 days and the effort expanded concerned 204.909 boat trips and average of 89 trips per day. The landing of pelagic, Demersal, crustaceans, Molluscs and miscellaneous was for one year from September 2008 to August 2009. Pelagic trawlers and gill nets were used to collect the pelagic fishes. The major proportion of pelagic fishes, three major groups exploited include Clupoids, Scamberoids and Carangids by [8]. The oil Sardinella longiceps is a major fishery in south east coast and also reported in Karwar coastal region [9]. It was abundant more during the month of July to October. The maximum landed in fishes in the month of June and overall annual catch of 2, 17,808 kgs [10]. Oil sardine is largely available fishes in Indian coast are previously reported by [11]. Anchovies (Thryssa spp) were also more abundant in the month of December 8542 kg, half beaks and full beaks (Hemiramphids and Belonids) were landed less 2142 kg. The Silago sihama was available (8451 kg) in good quantity in almost all the months, Aug, Oct and September. Ribbon fishes (Trichiurus lepturus and Lepturacanthus savala) were found throughout year and peak of month March, Trichiurus lepturus was heavily exploited in the fishing ground [12].

Carangids contributed a good percentage the pelagic fishes. Among the scads (Deccaptures ruselli) and Horse mackerel (Megalaspis cordyla) available throughout the year with their peaks in the month of March and April. Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) major part of the in the pelagic fishes [8] peaks in March and April, Seer fishes (Scomberomonus spp), were landed in good counts during December to March maximum in 2783 kg. Tunas (Euthynnus affinis and Thunnus spp) are ranked by first place after Indian mackerel Indian Ocean [13], among the Scamberoids landings throughout the year. Peak season recorded was from June to September. Barracuda (Sphyraena spp) showed highest landings in the month of June to October; Mullets was recorded more in month of September to February, and maximum landed in the month of February 5421kg. Among the eighteen types of pelagic fishes landed, Sardinella longiceps, Carangids and Rastrelliger kanagurta were found in common while the groups and pomfrets were rare. The pelagic fishes overall maximum landed in the month of January (100,373.5 kg) and then minimum landed in the month of April (45,240 kg).

Sharks (Scoliodon spp and Sphyrna spp) were found them throughout the year. Maximum 7452 kg October to February, peak in January, Skates (Rhyncobatus spp) were recorded in less amount compared to sharks, and skates were more during the period August to December, maximum in September, 4783 kg [14,15]. Rays (Rhinoptera spp, Gymnura spp and Narcine etc.,) were found dominant among the Elasmobranchs. These were available throughout the year maximum landed in Oct 16582 kg. Eels (Longer cinereous and Anguilla spp) and were mainly dried. Found in months and like fishing January in high (2785 kg). Catfishes (Arius spp) levels quantity is mainly from the hook and line fishing, highest levels, 2140 kg in month of October. Croakers (Johinus spp) maximum in month of October 9452 kg perches (Epinephelus spp and lutjanus spp) were caught maximum in July (2452 kg). Silver bellies (Leiognathus spp and Gazza spp) and were abundant among the demersal fisheries, maximum in the month of September 2789 kg landed. Pomfrets (Pampus spp, Parastromateus sp and Solea sp etc.,) maximum landed September 2214 kg [16]. The demersal fishes overall maximum landed in the month of October (51,084 kg) and then minimum landed in the month of April (22,999 kg) (Table 2).

Demersal fishes September October November December January February March April June July August Total
Sharks 5421 7452 6545 5784 6521 6682 6854 2541 4552 4271 6352 62975
Skates 4783 4521 3557 4521 5214 4751 3865 1521 3254 3641 3452 43080
Rays 13452 16582 14521 13452 12451 15782 13452 6356 9785 9784 10452 136069
Eels 1652 1752 1654 1965 2785 1765 1981 1052 2451 1784 1658 20499
Catfishes 1785 2140 1963 1779 1452 1854 1845 1201 1745.5 1552 1485 18801.5
Croakers 7452 9452 7745 6584 7931 8245 6584 2651 7547 6587 5984 76762
Perches 1325.5 1548 1652 2145 1742.5 1785 1544 1452 1452 2452 1685 18783
Silver bellies 2789 1864 2015 1742 1654 1725 1985 1235 1548 1661 2145 20363
Pomfrets 2214 1996.5 2014 2145 1453 1972 1945 1452 1658 1845 1784 20478.5
Halibut 2352 1784 1845 1874.5 2085 1845 2356 1754 1992.5 1812 1874 21574
Flatfishes 1963 1992.5 1784 1975 2542 1658 1785 1784 1873 2055 1985 21396.5
Total 45,188.5 51,084 45,295 43,966.5 45,830.5 48,064 44,196 22,999 37,858 37,444 38,856 46,0781.5

Table 2: The landing of Demersal fishes (Kg) at Mallipattinam landing centre for the period of one year September 2008-August 2009.

The crabs are caught either by conventional crab pots, or by tangle nets. In the seashore a very large number of different species of crabs are found, but most of them are small in size and therefore rarely used for human consumption. Most dominant crab species in Mallipattinam coastal Portunus pelagicus and P. sanguinolentus were landed on throughout the year the previously reported by [17]. These two crabs are found in large quantities along the Tamil Nadu coast and the fishery is round the year [17,18]. Perhaps the only shore crabs still caught in great numbers are the mangrove crab Scylla serrata and S. tranqubarica which occurs in the coastal and throughout the muddy bottom of intertidal and subtidal zones of this coastal environment, mud crab landing were local markets [19], reported that after Tsunami December 2004. The crab P. gladiator, Charybdis species landed Minimum quantity [17]. Mostly Charybdis feriata landed in maximum and also other species of Charybdis lucifera, C. variegata, C. natator, C. truncata, C. granulata and Podophthalmus vigil, also landed in seasonally very low percentage of this coastal environment. Crabs probably contributed to the increasing availability of crabs with the size range of 9-15 cm [17,20,21]. The commercial significant species including Penaeus indicus, P. japonicus, P. monodon, P. semisulcatus, P. chinensis, P. merquiensis and Metapenaeus dobsonii and M. ensis were recorded in Mallipattinam. The shrimps were caught by beam trawling boats which tow a number of bottom dredges along the surface of the mud. Among shrimps Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus dobsonii was contained maximum is in agreement with the observation made by [22] in Cuddalore waters. Some shrimps are caught in the deep bay marshes where they constitute some 13.3% of the total catch [23,24]. The crustacean’s maximum landed in overall in the month of June (38,464 kg) and then minimum quantity of landed in the month of April (15,624 kg) (Table 3).

Crustaceans September October November December January February March April June July August Total
Penaeid shrimp 6854 5421 6453 5983 5632 5895 6231 4875 7652 6785 5524 67305
Non penaeid 9968 10883 10987 10472 10553 12452 11754 5453 14521 10452 11235 118730
Lobster 3784 6452 6584 6785 3784 3985 3721 1568 4785 4254 2984 48686
Crabs 4785 5631 4772 4325 4754 5213 5785 2475 7854 6557 6854 59005
Stomatopods 2452 2658 2784 2658 2654 2452 2532 1253 3652 2475 2451 28021
Total 27,843 31,045 31,580 30,223 27,377 29,997 30,023 15,624 38,464 30,523 29,048 32,1747

Table 3: The landing of Crustaceans (Kg) at Mallipattinam landing centre for the period of one year September 2008-August 2009.

The Cephalopods form an important seafood variety as they are valued in the inter market. According to [25], Cephalopods resources had no potential value and organized fishery in India. Cephalopods have a significant contribution to the total annual fish landings of coastal with some local potential for expansion [26]. Of which, squids are of major importance in Mallipattinam [27]. Mainly Loligo edulis and L. forosana, which are caught by pair and stern trawlers with its peak during summer. Similarly, cuttlefish has the production of about 1,957 kg worth. The landings are mainly composed of Sepia pharaonis, S. recurvirostra, S. lycidas and S. aculeata etc., which are caught by pair and stern trawlers on the continental shelf, while Octopus are of minor importance among cephalopods and also potential of marine resource reported in south west coast of India [28]. The molluscs maximum landed in overall in the month of June (20,657 kg) and then minimum quantity of landed in the month of April (9,652 kg) (Table 4).

Molluscs September October November December January February March April June July August Total
Bivalves 7854 7381 7845 7622 7245 7554 7452 3215 8754 7652 6542 79116
Gastropods 6754 6425 6584 6975 7213 7451 7542 3654 5324 5478 4495 67895
Cephalopopds 4521 4788 5476 5784 4215 4322 4751 2783 6579 5632 5421 54272
Total 19,129 18,594 19,905 20,381 18,673 19,327 19,745 9,652 20,657 18,762 16,458 20,1283

Table 4: The landing of Molluscs (Kg) at Mallipattinam landing centre for the period of one year September 2008-August 2009.

The fisheries sector occupies a very important place in the socioeconomic development of the country. Mallipattinam is one of the main fishing centres in Tamil Nadu, contributing its mite to the fishery economy. The trawlers in Mallipattinam concentrate more on pelagic fishes, demersal fishes, than on the crustaceans, cephalopods, molluscs, the pelagic fishes mainly caught by the gill nets. In Mallipattinam the crowded fishing efforts has led to lesser catch per boat trip. In these areas, catamarans are very small level operated. Mainly catch of fishes using in Mechanized boats and FRB boats. During the study period, total landing of fishes in Mallipattinam (September 2008 to August 2009) were 98, 7, 215kg (40.9%) for pelagic fishes, 46,0782.5 kg (19.9 %) for demersal fishes, 3,21,747 kg (13%) for crustaceans, 20,1283 kg (17%) for Molluscs, and 2,21,882 kg (9.9%) for miscellaneous. Mechanized trawlers contributed 53% to the catch, with FRB boat 34% and other large and small boats 12% in this period. The estimated marine fish landings of Tamil Nadu were 4, 12, 066 t during 2007. The catch increased by 14.7% from 2006. Among the pelagic, sardines dominated the landings (1, 13,931 t) followed by carangids (24,698 t), [10]. So the contributions of Mallipattinam total landing Pelagic, Demersal fishes, Crustaceans and Molluscs in the month of June (2, 17,808 kg) maximum landed and then minimum in April (10, 8,036 kg) landed (Table 5).

 Landed fishes September October November December January February March April June July August Total
Pelagic fishes 87505 88970 88930 92314 100374 95081 94019 45240 96316 99508 98958 987215
Demersal fishes 45188.5 51084 45295 43967 45831 48064 44196 22999 37858 37444 38856 460782.5
Crustaceans 27843 31045 31580 30223 27377 29997 30023 15624 38464 30523 29048 321747
Molluscs 19129 18594 19905 20381 18673 19327 19745 9652 20657 18762 16458 201283
Miscellaneous 23451 19754 18642 21453 22845 17854 21453 14521 24513 19854 17542 221882
Total 2,031,16.5 2,09,447 2,04,352 2,08,338 2,15,100 2,10,323 2,09,436 1,08,036 2,17,808 2,06,091 2,00,862 21,92,910

Table 5: Total fishery landings (Kg) at Mallipattinam landing centres for the period of one year September 2008-August 2009

The present study, fishing activity and hence most of the wild resources are under heavy exploitation now [17,29]. Preliminary assessment of fisheries resources of the Andaman coast in early January 2005 indicated that fisheries resources in some areas declined by half after the tsunami. The ancient tradition of fishing by using the traditional devices like Pari, Katcha, Ootha, Sorati, Catamaran and Karaivalai have become sustainable way of harvesting inland and marine life without damaging the environment of coral mangrove, wetland and sea-grass bed habitats. These traditional fishing practices are more important in the issue of environmental pollution control and biodiversity conservation. These eco-friendly techniques are to be documented, preserved, protected and promoted for future use. The coast of Mallipattinam supports a major fishery along southeast coast of India. The fisheries do much help to meet the continuously increasing demand for food. Estimates indicate that the world catch of fish today could supply about 70% of the animal protein requirements of the present populations. The increased demand for fishes in different markets and the depletion of resources along the coast necessitated an urgent need for promoting conservation and management. Peoples are discussed about the challenges and opportunities of marine capture fisheries in India. There is still information needed for successful management. However the fishery management is much more than research. Fishes do not even cry in dying hours, but people are crying daily due to droughts.

References

Citation: Varadharajan D, Soundarapandian P (2015) Fishery Potential of Mallipattinam Coast, South East Coast of India. J Earth Sci Clim Change 6: 285. Doi: 10.4172/2157-7617.1000285

Copyright: © 2015 Varadharajan D, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Post Your Comment Citation
Share This Article
Recommended Conferences
Viewmore
Article Usage
  • Total views: 12545
  • [From(publication date): 7-2015 - Jul 21, 2018]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views: 8686
  • PDF downloads: 3859

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh
Leave Your Message 24x7