alexa Metagenomics: A New Approach for Microbial Identification | OMICS International
ISSN: 2167-7719
Air & Water Borne Diseases
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Metagenomics: A New Approach for Microbial Identification

Jian Yang*

MOH Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, China

*Corresponding Author:
Jian Yang
MOH Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens
Institute of Pathogen Biology
Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, China
Tel: 8610-6787-7735
E-mail:[email protected]

Received Date: June 19, 2012; Accepted Date: June 19, 2012; Published Date: June 20, 2012

Citation: Yang J (2012) Metagenomics: A New Approach for Microbial Identification. Air Water Borne Dis 1:e115. doi:10.4172/2167-7719.1000e115

Copyright: © 2012 Yang J. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Air & Water Borne Diseases

Traditional microbiology focused on clonal cultures of single microorganism. However, it is now well established that majority of the microbes existing in the world could not be laboratory cultivated while playing essential roles in human life. Therefore, the newly emerged metagenomic method poses an important approach to explore the fantastic world of unculturable microorganisms. With the power of modern genomic techniques the metagenomic approach directly analyze the collective nucleotide contents of the entire microbial community (i.e. the metagenome), bypassing the need for isolation and lab cultivation of individual species [1].

Though firstly proposed as early as 1998 [2], the metagenomic method was easily applicable only after the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, which have dramatically improved the speed and cost-effectiveness of DNA sequencing since 2005. In addition, the fast development of NGS platforms fueled the wide application of metagenomics in biomedical studies in recent years as reflected from the exponential increase in the number of related publications available in PubMed (Figure 1).

air-water-borne-diseases-fast-growth

Figure 1: Fast growth of metagenomics related publications in PubMed (accessed at June 15, 2012). Keywords used for literatures search are ‘metagenome OR metagenomic OR metagenomics’. An exponential trendline (red) was used to fit the data.

Though most of the former metagenomic studies focused on characterization of bacteria communities using 16S rDNA, many recent studies employed shotgun metagenomic strategy for screening all microorganism especially potential viral agents of human diseases. Using metagenomic approach on human tissue samples, Feng and coworkers discovered a previously unknown polyomavirus associated with Merkel cell carcinoma [3], and Palacios et al. also identified a new arenavirus related to a cluster of fatal transplant-associated diseases [4]. Metagenomic approach was further demonstrated to be a powerful complement to current methods for clinical diagnosis in accurate and parallel identification of various known viruses as well as novel variants from fecal [5-7] and nasal [8,9] specimen. For more information on applications of metagenomics in virus discovery refer to the recent review by Mokili et al. [10].

Nevertheless, some associated techniques need substantial improvements to facilitate further applications of metagenomic approach for microbial identification. Efficient methods for microbe enrichment are essential to circumvent the high human contamination as currently encountered in many studies. In addition, optimized bioinformatics tools for accurate binning, assembly and annotation from the metagenomic data are also urgently required.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Article Usage

  • Total views: 5485
  • [From(publication date):
    December-2012 - Jan 23, 2020]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 1508
  • PDF downloads : 3977
Top