Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar


International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience - Non-suicidal self-injury: Understanding, coping, and seeking help
ISSN: 1522-4821

International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience
Open Access

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)
  • Perspective Article   
  • Int J Emer Ment Health, Vol 26(3)
  • DOI: 10.4172/1522-4821.1000639

Non-suicidal self-injury: Understanding, coping, and seeking help

Daniel Nunez*
Department of Mental Health and Adolescents, Universidad de Talca, Chile
*Corresponding Author: Daniel Nunez, Department of Mental Health and Adolescents, Universidad de Talca, Chile, Email:

Received: 27-Apr-2024 / Manuscript No. ijemhhr-24-138973 / Editor assigned: 01-May-2024 / PreQC No. ijemhhr-24-138973 / Reviewed: 15-May-2024 / QC No. ijemhhr-24-138973 / Revised: 19-May-2024 / Manuscript No. ijemhhr-24-138973 / Accepted Date: 27-Apr-2024 / Published Date: 26-May-2024 DOI: 10.4172/1522-4821.1000639 QI No. / ijemhhr-24-138973


Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) refers to the deliberate, self-inflicted damage to the body tissue without suicidal intent, often manifesting as cutting, burning, or scratching. This behavior is prevalent among adolescents and young adults, with significant psychological and social implications. The underlying motivations for NSSI are complex and multifaceted, including emotional regulation, coping mechanisms for distress, and communication of internal pain. This paper explores the prevalence, psychological correlates, and therapeutic interventions for NSSI, highlighting the need for comprehensive assessment and tailored treatment strategies. By understanding the nuanced motivations and contextual factors, mental health professionals can better support individuals engaging in NSSI and promote healthier coping mechanisms.

Keywords: Non-suicidal self-injury, Emotional regulation, Psychological interventions


Non-suicidal self-injury, Emotional regulation, Psychological interventions


Is a complex and often misunderstood behavior that affects a significant number of individuals worldwide. Unlike suicide attempts, NSSI is characterized by deliberate, self-inflicted harm to one's body without the intent to die. This behavior is typically repetitive and serves various emotional or psychological purposes for the individual engaging in it. Despite its prevalence and the serious implications for mental health, NSSI remains a challenging topic that requires understanding, compassion, and effective intervention (Germain SA, 2012).

Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI): The act of NSSI can take many forms, including cutting, burning, hitting, scratching, or other methods that cause physical harm. While the behavior may temporarily relieve emotional distress or provide a sense of control, it is not a healthy or sustainable coping mechanism. Individuals who engage in NSSI often experience intense emotions such as overwhelming sadness, anxiety, anger, or numbness. These emotions can be difficult to manage, and NSSI may serve as a way to externalize internal pain or regain a sense of emotional equilibrium. Understanding the underlying reasons for NSSI is crucial for effective intervention. Many factors contribute to the development and maintenance of NSSI behaviors. Psychological factors such as trauma, abuse, neglect, or other adverse childhood experiences can increase the risk. Additionally, individuals struggling with mood disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety), personality disorders, or difficulties regulating emotions may be more prone to engaging in NSSI as a maladaptive coping strategy (Klonsky ED, 2009).

Social and environmental factors also play a significant role. Peer influence, social isolation, family dynamics, and cultural norms surrounding mental health and coping mechanisms can impact an individual's likelihood of engaging in NSSI. Furthermore, societal stigma and misconceptions about NSSI may prevent individuals from seeking help or receiving appropriate support. It is essential to recognize that NSSI is not attention-seeking behavior or a phase that individuals will simply outgrow (Liu RT, 2018). It is a serious indicator of emotional distress and underlying psychological issues that require professional attention and support. Ignoring or dismissing NSSI can lead to worsening mental health outcomes, increased risk of suicidal ideation or behavior, and long-term physical and psychological consequences (Lloyd-Richardson EE, 2007).

For individuals struggling with NSSI, seeking help is a crucial step towards healing and recovery. Mental health professionals, including psychologists, psychiatrists, and counselors, can provide assessment, diagnosis, and evidence-based treatments tailored to the individual's needs. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has shown efficacy in helping individuals understand and change the thoughts and behaviors associated with NSSI (Marshall E, 2018). Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), which focuses on developing skills for emotional regulation and distress tolerance, is also effective in reducing NSSI behaviors. Medication may be prescribed in cases where underlying mood disorders or other mental health conditions contribute to NSSI. However, medication alone is typically not sufficient without concurrent psychotherapy and support. It is crucial for treatment to address not only the NSSI behaviors but also the underlying emotional difficulties and triggers that contribute to them (Muehlenkamp JJ, 2012).

Supportive interventions from friends, family members, and peers can also play a significant role in recovery. Building a strong support network that provides understanding, encouragement, and non-judgmental listening can help individuals feel less alone and more motivated to seek professional help. Peer support groups or online communities can also offer validation, shared experiences, and coping strategies from others who have struggled with NSSI. Preventing NSSI requires a multifaceted approach that includes early intervention, education, destigmatization, and accessible mental health resources. Schools, communities, and healthcare providers can play pivotal roles in promoting awareness of NSSI, providing education on healthy coping strategies, and creating environments where individuals feel safe seeking help without fear of judgment or discrimination (Selby EA, 2012).

For parents and caregivers, recognizing the signs of NSSI and responding with empathy and support are crucial. Open communication, validation of emotions, and connecting the individual with professional help are essential steps in assisting a loved one struggling with NSSI. It is important to avoid punitive responses or attempts to control the behavior through guilt or shame, as these approaches can exacerbate feelings of distress and isolation (Taylor PJ, 2018).

Ultimately, addressing NSSI requires a compassionate and comprehensive approach that addresses the complex interplay of psychological, social, and emotional factors. By fostering understanding, promoting early intervention, and supporting evidence-based treatments, we can help individuals struggling with NSSI find healthier ways to cope, improve their mental well-being, and work towards a future free from self-harm. Every individual deserves the opportunity to heal and thrive, and with appropriate support and resources, recovery from NSSI is possible. Complex behavior that demands our understanding, compassion, and concerted efforts towards effective intervention and support. It serves as a visible manifestation of underlying emotional distress and is not simply attention-seeking or a passing phase. Recognizing NSSI as a serious indicator of psychological distress allows us to approach it with empathy and evidence-based strategies for intervention (Victor SE, 2014).

Continued efforts in research and clinical practice are essential to further our understanding of NSSI and improve treatment outcomes. Research can help identify risk factors, protective factors, and effective interventions that can be tailored to different populations and contexts. By studying the underlying mechanisms of NSSI, researchers can develop targeted interventions that address the specific needs and challenges faced by individuals engaging in self-injurious behaviors. Additionally, integrating mental health education into school curricula and community outreach programs can raise awareness about NSSI, reduce stigma, and promote early intervention. By teaching young people healthy coping skills, emotional regulation techniques, and where to seek help if they or someone they know is struggling, we can empower individuals to prioritize their mental well-being and support others in times of distress. Education and awareness are crucial in fostering a supportive environment where individuals feel comfortable seeking help and accessing the resources they need to heal and thrive (Wilkinson P, 2011).


Addressing NSSI requires a multifaceted approach that includes professional mental health support, education, destigmatization, and community involvement. By promoting early intervention, providing accessible mental health resources, and fostering supportive environments, we can empower individuals struggling with NSSI to seek help without fear of judgment or isolation. Together, through research, education, and advocacy, we can work towards reducing the prevalence of NSSI, improving treatment outcomes, and supporting individuals on their journey towards mental well-being and recovery. Every individual deserves the opportunity to heal, grow, and thrive, and it is within our collective power to make a positive difference in the lives of those affected by NSSI.


Germain SA, Hooley JM. Direct and indirect forms of non-suicidal self-injury: Evidence for a distinction. Psychiatry  research. 2012 May 15;197(1-2):78-84.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Klonsky ED, Glenn CR. Assessing the functions of non-suicidal self-injury: Psychometric properties of the Inventory of Statements About Self-injury (ISAS). Journal of psychopathology and behavioral assessment. 2009 Sep;31:215-9.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Liu RT, Scopelliti KM. Childhood maltreatment and non-suicidal self-injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2018 Jan 1;5(1):51-64.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Lloyd-Richardson EE. Characteristics and functions of non-suicidal self-injury in a community sample of adolescents. Psychological medicine. 2007 Aug;37(8):1183-92.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Marshall E, Claes L. Non-suicidal self-injury and suicidality in trans people: A systematic review of the literature. Gender Dysphoria and Gender Incongruence. 2018 Apr 19:70-81.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Muehlenkamp JJ. International prevalence of adolescent non-suicidal self-injury and deliberate self-harm. Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health. 2012 Dec;6:1-9.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Selby EA, Bender TW. Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) disorder: a preliminary study. 2012 Apr;3(2):167.

Indexed at, Google Scholar

Taylor PJ, Jomar K. A meta-analysis of the prevalenceof different functions of non-suicidal self-injury. Journal of affective disorders. 2018 Feb 1;227:759-69.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Victor SE, Klonsky ED. Daily emotion in non-suicidal self-injury. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2014 Apr;70(4):364-75.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Wilkinson P, Goodyer I. Non-suicidal self-injury. European child & adolescent psychiatry. 2011 Feb;20:103-8.

Google Scholar