Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
Reach Us +44 3308186230


Shigellosis | OMICS International
ISSN: 2167-7719
Air & Water Borne Diseases
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business


Mona Z Zaghloul*

Microbiology Unit, Department of Clinical Pathology, Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt

*Corresponding Author:
Mona Z Zaghloul
Assistant Consultant in the Microbiology Unit
Clinical Pathology Department
Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Tel: 02-24023494

Received Date: December 10, 2011; Accepted Date: December 26, 2011; Published Date: January 03, 2012

Citation: Zaghloul MZ (2012) Shigellosis. Air Water Borne Diseases 1:e101. doi:10.4172/2167-7719.1000e101

Copyright: © 2012 Zaghloul MZ. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Air & Water Borne Diseases

Diarrheal illness remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite ongoing trials to understand its epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. Shigellosis is one of the acute infectious disease that cause an estimated 150 million cases and 600,000 deaths annually, it is responsible for 10% of all cases of diarrhea among children <5 years of age living in developing countries [1] and can cause disease after ingestion of 10 bacterial cells only [2]. So there is a need to revisit shigellosis epidemiology to see if it is following the global trend of diarrheal diseases, or if it has its own unique evolutionary profile.

Shigellosis caused by one of four serogroups with multiple serotypes: A (S dysenteriae, 12 serotypes); B (S flexneri, 6 serotypes); C (S boydii, 18 serotypes); and D (S sonnei, 1 serotype). They are transmitted by fecal-oral route, water, food, fomites, flies and direct contact to a diseased person or carrier. The symptoms include abdominal pain, tenesmus, watery diarrhea, and/or dysentery [3]. Once ingested, Shigella moves down to the colon where it gains access to the intestinal mucosa by invading specialized epithelial cells, the M cells in Peyer’s patches, and subsequently infecting adjacent cells in intestinal crypts. Once the bacteria reach the lymphoid follicles, they encourage macrophages to multiply, induce apoptosis and give rise to an inflammatory response, the hallmark of this enteric disease [4]. Diagnosis depends on direct plating of fecal specimens onto MacConkey, Salmonella-Shigella, Xylose lysin deoxycholate and Hectoen enteric agar media, isolates were confirmed biochemically and by API 20E system and serotyped by antisera. Recently immunofluorescence techniques, direct polymerase chain reaction and multiplex PCR assays detecting Shigella enterotoxins (set1A, set1B and sen) invasion-associated locus (ial), invasive plasmid antigen (ipaH), and virF virulence genes were used [5]. Shigella was not only susceptible to ampicillin and sulphametoxazole-trimethoprim but also to ceftriaxone, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin as a drug of choice for all patients with bloody diarrhea, regardless of their age [6,7]. Qiu et al. [8] described the first isolation of a new Shigella flexneri serotype 4s, which is a clone of the S. flexneri serotype X variant in Beijing, China, and concern with multidrug resistance. Due to rising drug resistance, the importance of better pathogen detection, vaccine design and the use of vaccines as a preventive measure against intestinal infections had emerged. Special attention is paid to OMP38, a protein isolated from S. flexneri 3a outer membrane. Since it is known that this protein has good immunogenic properties, it can be used as an antigen or carrier for conjugate vaccines [9].

The most important thing you can do to prevent shigellosis is to wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm water after the use of bathroom and before eating or preparing food. Remind everyone else in your family especially children to do the same. After someone with shigellosis uses a toilet, it should be cleaned and disinfected before anyone else uses it. By following these simple steps, you can help keep yourself and everyone in your family healthy.


Post your comment

Share This Article

Recommended Journals

Article Usage

  • Total views: 6172
  • [From(publication date):
    March-2012 - Apr 24, 2024]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 1787
  • PDF downloads : 4385