Lakshmi P*, Reddy MS, Reddy CP and Rao AN
Geology Department, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India
Received February 12, 2016; Accepted April 22, 2016; Published April 28, 2016
Citation: Lakshmi P, Reddy MS, Reddy CP, Rao AN (2016) Studies of Physico-Chemical Parameters to Evaluate Quality of Water at Different Zones of Nalagonda District of Telangana, India. J Earth Sci Clim Change. 7:347. doi:10.4172/2157-7617.1000347
Copyright: © 2016 Lakshmi P, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The objective of this research is to study the Physico-chemical parameters of water by sampling Hand pump, Bore well, Vagu and Cheruvu water of 6 selected sites of Polkampally, Ghanapuram, Kodhandapuram, Mallaiahpallem, Nemalipuram, Pinnavura of Nalgonda district of Telangana, India. The variation of physical and chemical parameters such as temp, pH, TDS, SP and Co3, CaCl2, F, So4, Mg, Na, k, No3 contain were analysed for a period of one year. All parameter were within the permissible limits. From the result it was found that water of Polkampally Vagu was marginal for agriculture and other sources of water was probably safe or it can be used for domestic or irrigation purpose only. Therefore it offers as a significant value to physico-chemical water quality standards.
Physio-chemical parameters; Water quality standards
Ecosystem is known as the lifeline of earth which most significantly uses the water compound. By physical, chemical and biological characteristics we can describe better quality of water. But some correlation is possible among these parameters and the significant one would be useful to indicate quality of water [1-3]. Due to increased human population, industrialization, use of fertilizers in agriculture and man-made activity, the natural aquatic resources are causing heavy and varied pollution in the aquatic environment leading to water quality and depletion of aquatic biota. It is therefore necessary that the quality of drinking water should be checked at regular time interval because due to use of contaminated drinking water, human population suffers from a variety of water borne diseases [3-5]. It is difficult to understand the biological phenomena fully because the chemistry of water reveals much about the metabolism. The ecosystem and explain the general hydro biological relationship. The physico-chemical parameters of water and the dependence of all life process of these factors make it desirable to take as an environment. It is therefore necessary that the quality of drinking water should be checked at regular time of interval, because due to use of contaminated drinking water, human population suffers from varied of water borne diseases. It is difficult to understand the biological phenomena fully because the chemistry of water revels much about the metabolism of the ecosystem and explain the general hydro-biological relationship [6-8].
The present study involves analysis of water quality in terms of physico-chemical parameters of six sites Polkampally, Ghanapuram, Kodhandapuram, Mallaiahpallem, Nemalipuram, Pinnavura of Nalgonda district. It is located in Nalgonda district, Telangana. Water samples of these sites are basically used for domestic and agriculture purpose.
Water sample were collected in polythene bottle from Hand pump, Bore well, Open well, Vagu and Cheruvu from Polkampally, Ghanapuram, Kodhandapuram, Mallaiahpallem, Nemalipuram and Pinnavura of Nalgonda district (Table 1). Water samples were collected and brought into the laboratory for the analysis of various physical and chemical parameters—pH, Conductivity, TDS, Carbonate, Nitrate, Calcium, Magnesium, Sulphate, Chloride, Fluoride, and Sodium. All parameters were within the permissible limits (Table 2).
|Lab. No.||Particulars of the Sample Village/Mandal||Location of Well||Date of Collection||Latitude / Longitude|
|1||1860||Polkampally/Peddavura||Hand pump||22..07.2014||164542.773N 790748.238E|
|2||1861||Polkampally/Peddavura||Bore well||22..07.2014||164541.560N 790750.225E|
|3||1862||Polkampally/Peddavura||Open well||22..07.2014||164528.901N 790745.500E|
|5||1864||Ghanapuram/Peddavura||Hand pump||22..07.2014||164420.075N 790720.596E|
|7||1866||Ghanapuram/Peddavura||Bore well||22..07.2014||164425.364N 790712.483E|
|9||1868||Kodhandapuram/Peddavura||Hand pump||22..07.2014||164342.591N 790833.003E|
|10||1869||Kodhandapuram/Peddavura||Open well||22..07.2014||164343.257N 790834.054E|
|Hand pump||22..07.2014||164436.535N 790923.925E|
|Hand pump||22..07.2014||164437.795N 790926.861E|
|Bore well||22..07.2014||164436.621N 790928.181E|
|Open well||22..07.2014||164434.979N 790928.178E|
|16||1875||Nemalipuram/Peddavura||Hand pump||22..07.2014||164342.231N 790859.352E|
|19||1878||Pinnavura/Peddavura||Hand pump||22..07.2014||164325.755N 791051.048E|
|20||1879||Pinnavura/Peddavura||Bore well||22..07.2014||164322.437N 791053.015E|
Table 1: Lab, place, sample collection medium, dates and latitude/longitude details.
|S. No.||Lab No.||pH||SP Conductivity at 25oC||TDS Calculated mg/l|
|BIS Permisable Limits||6.50 to 8.50||< 750=Good
750 to 1500=Safe
1500 to 2250= Permissible
Table 2: Physical (pH, SP Conductivity & TDS) parameters of Nalgonda district water sample.
In present study, pH value was found between 7.29-8.35. It shows the alkalinity of water sample throughout the periods. The high value of pH is due to the deposition of sewage and agriculture waste. pH value is essential for the growth of aquatic flora [9,10].
The conductivity of water ranges from 529-3070 at 25°C. The correlation between conductivity and physio-chemical parameters were beneficial for understanding the quality of water. It can measure by controlling the conductivity of water by EC meter. The conductivity of water sample was observed by standardized with KCL solution through standard instrument [11-14].
Sodium absorption ratio
In present study the SAR ratio ranges between 1.25-5.53. SAR is an acceptability of water for agriculture purpose. SAR ratio was analysis by the concentration of total solid in the water. If the SAR ratio were higher it is less satisfactory for irrigation. High SAR ratio will damage the quality of soil. Its sodium ratio decreases the calcium and magnesium from the soil .
Total dissolves oxygen
The values of carbonate fluctuate from 0-40 mg/l and 0.00-0.80 ppm. In water sample high pH shows the presence of carbonate if the pH is reduced it shows the conversion of carbonate into bicarbonate. It can be examine with the help of titration by standard HCl using phenolphthalein as indicator.
The values of Chloride 40-560 mg/l and 1.41-15.79 ppm. It is examine by titrate the know value of sample by standardized silver nitrate solution using potassium chromate solution in water (Table 3).
|S.No.||Lab No.||CO3 as CaCO3||HCO3 as CaCO3||Cl||F|
|BIS Permisable Limits||mg/l.||ppm||mg/l.||ppm||mg/l.||ppm||mg/l.|
Table 3: Chemical (CO3 as CaCO3, HCO3 as CaCO3, Cl & F) parameters of Nalgonda district water sample.
The values of nitrate are ranges from 0.40-72.00 mg/l and 0.03- 5.14 ppm. The presence of N2 compound in the water was sample by the domestic effluents and factories chemicals. It is estimated by Spectrophotometric methods (Table 4).
|S.No.||Lab No.||NO3 as N||SO4||Na|
|BIS Permisable Limits||mg/l.||ppm||mg/l.||ppm||mg/l.||ppm|
|10.16||200-400||No Guidelines||No Guidelines|
Table 4: Chemical (NO3 as N, SO4 & Na) parameters of Nalgonda district water sample.
The values of Sulphate are ranges from 59-366 mg/l and 1.23-7.63 ppm. Sometime sulphate ions are present naturally in water or addition of industrial effluents.
The value of Sodium was estimated by flame-photometer. In this study the range of sodium obtained between 38-374 mg/l and 1.67- 16.27 ppm .
The value of potassium ranges between 1.21-132.1 mg/l and 0.03- 3.51 ppm. It was estimated by flame-photometer (Table 5 and 6).
|S.No.||Lab No.||K||Ca||Mg||T.H. as CaCo3|
|BIS Permisable Limits||mg/l.||ppm||mg/l.||ppm||mg/l.||ppm||mg/lit.|
Table 5: Chemical (K, Ca, Mg & T.H. as CaCO3) parameters of Nalgonda district water sample.
|S.No.||Lab No.||Conductivity and Sodium Adsorption Ratio||Classification||RSC meq/L||Classification|
|BIS Permisable Limits||0-10 (Excellent),10-18 (Good), 18-27 (Doubtful), above 27 (U.S.)||0-1.25 (P.S.), 1.26-2.5 (M.R), 2.5 above (U.S)|
|1.||1860||4.48||High, Low||-7.14||Probably safe|
|2.||1861||2.95||High, Low||-0.30||Probably safe|
|3.||1862||2.35||High, Low||-0.76||Probably safe|
|4.||1863||5.53||High, Low||2.24||Marginal (for agriculture)|
|5.||1864||5.16||High, Low||-1.55||Probably safe|
|6.||1865||2.73||High, Low||-0.56||Probably safe|
|7.||1866||7.94||High, Low||-2.24||Probably safe|
|8.||1867||1.25||Very High, Low||-1.45||Probably safe|
|9.||1868||2.11||Medium, Low||-1.80||Probably safe|
|10.||1869||2.75||High, Low||-0.81||Probably safe|
|11.||1870||1.64||High, Low||-3.24||Probably safe|
|12.||1871||0.99||High, Low||-4.03||Probably safe|
|13.||1872||1.96||High, Low||-4.40||Probably safe|
|14.||1873||2.31||High, Low||-2.83||Probably safe|
|15.||1874||1.84||High, Low||-0.51||Probably safe|
|16.||1875||3.20||Medium, Low||-6.50||Probably safe|
|17.||1876||3.30||High, Low||0.57||Probably safe|
|18.||1877||2.07||High, Low||0.32||Probably safe|
|19.||1878||4.93||Medium, Low||-8.71||Probably safe|
|20.||1879||1.83||High, Low||-1.50||Probably safe|
Table 6: Chemical (K, Ca, Mg & T.H. as CaCO3) parameters of Nalgonda district water sample.
The value of calcium ranges observed between 16-120 mg/l and 0.80-6.00 ppm. It was estimated by titration.
The value of magnesium observed between 5-102 mg/l and 0.40- 8.40 ppm. It was estimated by titration through EDTA standard .
Water quality is dependent on the type of the pollutant added and the nature of mineral found at particular zone of bore well. Monitoring of the water quality of ground water is done by collecting representative water samples and analysis of physico-chemical characteristics of water samples at different locations of Nalgonda district [23,24]. Estimation of water quality index through formulation of appropriate using method and evaluate the quality of different water by statistical analysis by physico-chemical properties. From the result it was found that water of Polkampally Vagu was marginal for agriculture and other sources of water was probably safe or it can be used for domestic or irrigation purpose only. Therefore it offers as a significant value to physicochemical water quality standards.
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