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ISSN: 2157-7617
Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change
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Studies of Physico-Chemical Parameters to Evaluate Quality of Water at Different Zones of Nalagonda District of Telangana, India

Lakshmi P*, Reddy MS, Reddy CP and Rao AN

Geology Department, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India

Corresponding Author:
Lakshmi P
Geology Department Osmania
University, Hyderabad, India
Tel: 04027682363
E-mail:
[email protected]

Received February 12, 2016; Accepted April 22, 2016; Published April 28, 2016

Citation: Lakshmi P, Reddy MS, Reddy CP, Rao AN (2016) Studies of Physico-Chemical Parameters to Evaluate Quality of Water at Different Zones of Nalagonda District of Telangana, India. J Earth Sci Clim Change. 7:347. doi:10.4172/2157-7617.1000347

Copyright: © 2016 Lakshmi P, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

The objective of this research is to study the Physico-chemical parameters of water by sampling Hand pump, Bore well, Vagu and Cheruvu water of 6 selected sites of Polkampally, Ghanapuram, Kodhandapuram, Mallaiahpallem, Nemalipuram, Pinnavura of Nalgonda district of Telangana, India. The variation of physical and chemical parameters such as temp, pH, TDS, SP and Co3, CaCl2, F, So4, Mg, Na, k, No3 contain were analysed for a period of one year. All parameter were within the permissible limits. From the result it was found that water of Polkampally Vagu was marginal for agriculture and other sources of water was probably safe or it can be used for domestic or irrigation purpose only. Therefore it offers as a significant value to physico-chemical water quality standards.

Keywords

Physio-chemical parameters; Water quality standards

Introduction

Ecosystem is known as the lifeline of earth which most significantly uses the water compound. By physical, chemical and biological characteristics we can describe better quality of water. But some correlation is possible among these parameters and the significant one would be useful to indicate quality of water [1-3]. Due to increased human population, industrialization, use of fertilizers in agriculture and man-made activity, the natural aquatic resources are causing heavy and varied pollution in the aquatic environment leading to water quality and depletion of aquatic biota. It is therefore necessary that the quality of drinking water should be checked at regular time interval because due to use of contaminated drinking water, human population suffers from a variety of water borne diseases [3-5]. It is difficult to understand the biological phenomena fully because the chemistry of water reveals much about the metabolism. The ecosystem and explain the general hydro biological relationship. The physico-chemical parameters of water and the dependence of all life process of these factors make it desirable to take as an environment. It is therefore necessary that the quality of drinking water should be checked at regular time of interval, because due to use of contaminated drinking water, human population suffers from varied of water borne diseases. It is difficult to understand the biological phenomena fully because the chemistry of water revels much about the metabolism of the ecosystem and explain the general hydro-biological relationship [6-8].

The present study involves analysis of water quality in terms of physico-chemical parameters of six sites Polkampally, Ghanapuram, Kodhandapuram, Mallaiahpallem, Nemalipuram, Pinnavura of Nalgonda district. It is located in Nalgonda district, Telangana. Water samples of these sites are basically used for domestic and agriculture purpose.

Materials and Methods

Water sample were collected in polythene bottle from Hand pump, Bore well, Open well, Vagu and Cheruvu from Polkampally, Ghanapuram, Kodhandapuram, Mallaiahpallem, Nemalipuram and Pinnavura of Nalgonda district (Table 1). Water samples were collected and brought into the laboratory for the analysis of various physical and chemical parameters—pH, Conductivity, TDS, Carbonate, Nitrate, Calcium, Magnesium, Sulphate, Chloride, Fluoride, and Sodium. All parameters were within the permissible limits (Table 2).

 
S.
No.
Lab. No. Particulars of the Sample Village/Mandal Location of Well Date of Collection Latitude  /  Longitude
1 1860 Polkampally/Peddavura Hand pump 22..07.2014 164542.773N 790748.238E
2 1861 Polkampally/Peddavura Bore well 22..07.2014 164541.560N  790750.225E
3 1862 Polkampally/Peddavura Open well 22..07.2014 164528.901N  790745.500E
4 1863 Polkampally/Peddavura Vagu 22..07.2014 164521.735N   790747.871E
5 1864 Ghanapuram/Peddavura Hand pump 22..07.2014 164420.075N  790720.596E
6 1865 Ghanapuram/Peddavura Cheruvu 22..07.2014 164417.707N  790723.459E
7 1866 Ghanapuram/Peddavura Bore well 22..07.2014 164425.364N  790712.483E
8 1867 Kodhandapuram/Peddavura Cheruvu 22..07.2014 164342.015N  790828.204E
9 1868 Kodhandapuram/Peddavura Hand pump 22..07.2014 164342.591N  790833.003E
10 1869 Kodhandapuram/Peddavura Open well 22..07.2014 164343.257N   790834.054E
11 1870 Mallaiahpallem(or)
Madhapuram/Peddavura
Hand pump 22..07.2014 164436.535N  790923.925E
12 1871 Mallaiahpallem(or)
Madhapuram/Peddavura
Hand pump 22..07.2014 164437.795N   790926.861E
13 1872 Mallaiahpallem(or)
Madhapuram/Peddavura
Bore well 22..07.2014 164436.621N  790928.181E
14 1873 Mallaiahpallem(or)
Madhapuram /Peddavura
Open well 22..07.2014 164434.979N   790928.178E
15 1874 Nemalipuram/Peddavura Cheruvu 22..07.2014 164353.251N   790900.830E
16 1875 Nemalipuram/Peddavura Hand pump 22..07.2014 164342.231N   790859.352E
17 1876 Pinnavura/Peddavura Cheruvu 22..07.2014 164334.991N  791044.115E
18 1877 Pinnavura/Peddavura Vagu 22..07.2014 164354.755N  791043.161E
19 1878 Pinnavura/Peddavura Hand pump 22..07.2014 164325.755N  791051.048E
20 1879 Pinnavura/Peddavura Bore well 22..07.2014 164322.437N  791053.015E

Table 1: Lab, place, sample collection medium, dates and latitude/longitude details.

S. No. Lab No. pH  SP Conductivity at 25oC TDS Calculated mg/l
BIS Permisable Limits 6.50 to 8.50 < 750=Good
750 to 1500=Safe
1500 to 2250= Permissible
>3000 U.S.
500-2000
1. 1860 7.78 2120 1357
2. 1861 8.19 1541 986
3. 1862 7.91 785 502
4. 1863 8.30 1185 758
5. 1864 7.91 1547 990
6. 1865 7.96 951 609
7. 1866 7.71 2790 1786
8. 1867 8.24 529 339
9. 1868 7.91 1023 655
10. 1869 7.78 1146 733
11. 1870 7.69 1071 685
12. 1871 7.88 1030 659
13. 1872 7.74 1245 797
14. 1873 7.81 1311 839
15. 1874 7.67 555 355
16. 1875 7.76 2030 1299
17. 1876 8.27 867 555
18. 1877 8.35 639 409
19. 1878 8.05 3070 1965
20. 1879 8.26 815 522

Table 2: Physical (pH, SP Conductivity & TDS) parameters of Nalgonda district water sample.

pH

In present study, pH value was found between 7.29-8.35. It shows the alkalinity of water sample throughout the periods. The high value of pH is due to the deposition of sewage and agriculture waste. pH value is essential for the growth of aquatic flora [9,10].

Conductivity

The conductivity of water ranges from 529-3070 at 25°C. The correlation between conductivity and physio-chemical parameters were beneficial for understanding the quality of water. It can measure by controlling the conductivity of water by EC meter. The conductivity of water sample was observed by standardized with KCL solution through standard instrument [11-14].

Sodium absorption ratio

In present study the SAR ratio ranges between 1.25-5.53. SAR is an acceptability of water for agriculture purpose. SAR ratio was analysis by the concentration of total solid in the water. If the SAR ratio were higher it is less satisfactory for irrigation. High SAR ratio will damage the quality of soil. Its sodium ratio decreases the calcium and magnesium from the soil [15].

Total dissolves oxygen

Total dissolved oxygen range 339-1965 mg/l. TDS were affected by the deposition of sewage and agriculture wastes. TDS analysis is the significant association for monitoring the quality of water [16].

Carbonate

The values of carbonate fluctuate from 0-40 mg/l and 0.00-0.80 ppm. In water sample high pH shows the presence of carbonate if the pH is reduced it shows the conversion of carbonate into bicarbonate. It can be examine with the help of titration by standard HCl using phenolphthalein as indicator.

Chloride

The values of Chloride 40-560 mg/l and 1.41-15.79 ppm. It is examine by titrate the know value of sample by standardized silver nitrate solution using potassium chromate solution in water (Table 3).

S.No. Lab No. CO3 as CaCO3 HCO3 as CaCO3 Cl F
BIS Permisable Limits mg/l. ppm mg/l. ppm mg/l. ppm mg/l.
200-600   200-600   250-1000   1.0-1.5
1. 1860 0 0.00 183 3.65 300 8.46 1.89
2. 1861 0 0.00 365 7.30 140 3.95 1.39
3. 1862 0 0.00 182 3.63 100 2.82 0.78
4. 1863 40 0.80 272 5.44 130 3.67 2.05
5. 1864 0 0.00 202 4.04 250 7.05 1.00
6. 1865 0 0.00 212 4.23 110 3.10 1.33
7. 1866 0 0.00 308 6.16 400 11.28 0.47
8. 1867 0 0.00 108 2.15 60 1.69 0.64
9. 1868 0 0.00 230 4.59 120 3.38 1.61
10. 1869 0 0.00 260 5.19 120 3.38 1.59
11. 1870 0 0.00 218 4.35 120 3.38 1.27
12. 1871 0 0.00 198 3.96 140 3.95 1.03
13. 1872 0 0.00 200 4.00 180 5.08 0.92
14. 1873 0 0.00 238 4.77 180 5.08 0.99
15. 1874 0 0.00 135 2.69 50 1.41 0.73
16. 1875 0 0.00 295 5.90 260 7.33 0.55
17. 1876 0 0.00 229 4.57 80 2.26 1.40
18. 1877 40 0.80 156 3.12 40 1.13 0.97
19. 1878 0 0.00 284 5.69 560 15.79 0.37
20. 1879 0 0.00 185 3.69 80 2.26 0.52

Table 3: Chemical (CO3 as CaCO3, HCO3 as CaCO3, Cl & F) parameters of Nalgonda district water sample.

Fluoride

The values of fluoride range from 0.37-2.05 mg/l. The presence of fluoride is observed by the assimilation of rocks or minerals near the surrounding water bodies [17-20].

Nitrate

The values of nitrate are ranges from 0.40-72.00 mg/l and 0.03- 5.14 ppm. The presence of N2 compound in the water was sample by the domestic effluents and factories chemicals. It is estimated by Spectrophotometric methods (Table 4).

S.No. Lab No. NO3  as  N SO4 Na
BIS Permisable Limits mg/l. ppm mg/l. ppm mg/l. ppm
10.16   200-400   No Guidelines No Guidelines
1. 1860 70.00 5.00 186 3.88 239 10.41
2. 1861 11.45 0.82 153 3.19 132 5.74
3. 1862 0.35 0.03 62 1.29 80 3.48
4. 1863 1.00 0.07 84 1.75 180 7.83
5. 1864 18.25 1.30 140 2.92 198 8.63
6. 1865 1.40 0.10 95 1.98 97 4.22
7. 1866 72.00 5.14 242 5.04 374 16.27
8. 1867 2.00 0.14 60 1.25 38 1.67
9. 1868 6.35 0.45 81 1.70 87 3.78
10. 1869 11.05 0.79 95 1.98 110 4.76
11. 1870 11.00 0.79 99.8 2.08 73 3.19
12. 1871 2.55 0.18 101 2.10 45 1.97
13. 1872 4.05 0.29 142 2.96 92 4.01
14. 1873 4.55 0.33 135 2.81 103 4.50
15. 1874 2.25 0.16 59 1.23 54 2.33
16. 1875 1.35 0.10 325 6.77 183 7.96
17. 1876 1.25 0.09 80 1.67 107 4.67
18. 1877 0.40 0.03 60 1.25 64 2.78
19. 1878 18.00 1.29 366 7.63 304 13.23
20. 1879 0.80 0.06 99 2.06 68 2.95

Table 4: Chemical (NO3 as N, SO4 & Na) parameters of Nalgonda district water sample.

Sulphate

The values of Sulphate are ranges from 59-366 mg/l and 1.23-7.63 ppm. Sometime sulphate ions are present naturally in water or addition of industrial effluents.

Sodium

The value of Sodium was estimated by flame-photometer. In this study the range of sodium obtained between 38-374 mg/l and 1.67- 16.27 ppm [21].

Potassium

The value of potassium ranges between 1.21-132.1 mg/l and 0.03- 3.51 ppm. It was estimated by flame-photometer (Table 5 and 6).

S.No. Lab No. K Ca Mg T.H. as CaCo3
BIS Permisable Limits mg/l. ppm mg/l. ppm mg/l. ppm mg/lit.
No Guidelines   75-200   30-100   200-600
1. 1860 8.2 0.21 56 2.80 97 8.00 540
2. 1861 87 2.23 64 3.20 53 4.40 380
3. 1862 1.92 0.05 24 1.20 39 3.20 220
4. 1863 5.6 0.14 40 2.00 24 2.00 200
5. 1864 54.6 1.40 40 2.00 44 3.60 280
6. 1865 22.89 0.59 16 0.80 49 4.00 240
7. 1866 137.2 3.51 88 4.40 49 4.00 420
8. 1867 2.84 0.07 56 2.80 10 0.80 180
9. 1868 6.14 0.16 16 0.80 68 5.60 320
10. 1869 31.85 0.81 40 2.00 49 4.00 300
11. 1870 1.21 0.03 64 3.20 53 4.40 380
12. 1871 16.98 0.43 32 1.60 78 6.40 400
13. 1872 6.43 0.16 64 3.20 63 5.20 420
14. 1873 44.72 1.14 32 1.60 73 6.00 380
15. 1874 2.88 0.07 48 2.40 10 0.80 160
16. 1875 5.7 0.15 72 3.60 107 8.80 620
17. 1876 3.42 0.09 24 1.20 34 2.80 200
18. 1877 2.85 0.07 32 1.60 24 2.00 180
19. 1878 132.1 3.38 120 6.00 102 8.40 720
20. 1879 3.06 0.08 96 4.80 5 0.40 260

Table 5: Chemical (K, Ca, Mg & T.H. as CaCO3) parameters of Nalgonda district water sample.

S.No. Lab No. Conductivity and Sodium Adsorption Ratio Classification RSC  meq/L Classification
BIS Permisable Limits 0-10 (Excellent),10-18 (Good), 18-27 (Doubtful), above 27 (U.S.) 0-1.25 (P.S.), 1.26-2.5 (M.R), 2.5 above (U.S)
1. 1860 4.48 High, Low -7.14 Probably safe
2. 1861 2.95 High, Low -0.30 Probably safe
3. 1862 2.35 High, Low -0.76 Probably safe
4. 1863 5.53 High, Low 2.24 Marginal (for agriculture)
5. 1864 5.16 High,  Low -1.55 Probably safe
6. 1865 2.73 High, Low -0.56 Probably safe
7. 1866 7.94 High, Low -2.24 Probably safe
8. 1867 1.25 Very High, Low -1.45 Probably safe
9. 1868 2.11 Medium, Low -1.80 Probably safe
10. 1869 2.75 High, Low -0.81 Probably safe
11. 1870 1.64 High, Low -3.24 Probably safe
12. 1871 0.99 High, Low -4.03 Probably safe
13. 1872 1.96 High, Low -4.40 Probably safe
14. 1873 2.31 High, Low -2.83 Probably safe
15. 1874 1.84 High, Low -0.51 Probably safe
16. 1875 3.20 Medium,  Low -6.50 Probably safe
17. 1876 3.30 High, Low 0.57 Probably safe
18. 1877 2.07 High, Low 0.32 Probably safe
19. 1878 4.93 Medium, Low -8.71 Probably safe
20. 1879 1.83 High, Low -1.50 Probably safe

Table 6: Chemical (K, Ca, Mg & T.H. as CaCO3) parameters of Nalgonda district water sample.

Calcium

The value of calcium ranges observed between 16-120 mg/l and 0.80-6.00 ppm. It was estimated by titration.

Magnesium

The value of magnesium observed between 5-102 mg/l and 0.40- 8.40 ppm. It was estimated by titration through EDTA standard [22].

Conclusion

Water quality is dependent on the type of the pollutant added and the nature of mineral found at particular zone of bore well. Monitoring of the water quality of ground water is done by collecting representative water samples and analysis of physico-chemical characteristics of water samples at different locations of Nalgonda district [23,24]. Estimation of water quality index through formulation of appropriate using method and evaluate the quality of different water by statistical analysis by physico-chemical properties. From the result it was found that water of Polkampally Vagu was marginal for agriculture and other sources of water was probably safe or it can be used for domestic or irrigation purpose only. Therefore it offers as a significant value to physicochemical water quality standards.

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