Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar


Studies of the Negative Effects of Climate Change on Crop Productivity and Global Food Security
ISSN: 2329-8863
Advances in Crop Science and Technology
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business
  • Editorial   
  • Adv Crop Sci Tech 2015, Vol 3(4): e129
  • DOI: 10.4172/2329-8863.1000e129

Studies of the Negative Effects of Climate Change on Crop Productivity and Global Food Security

Mariam Sticklen*
Department of Crop, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA
*Corresponding Author: Mariam Sticklen, Department of Crop, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA, Tel: 1 517-355-0271, Email:

Received: 08-Apr-2015 / Accepted Date: 08-Aug-2015 / Published Date: 14-Aug-2015 DOI: 10.4172/2329-8863.1000e129

The earth ‘climate change’ has been well documented. Climate change is a long-term (decades to millions of years) distribution means of weather pattern changes caused by physical and biological factors. Physical factors that contribute to climate change include; volcanic eruptions, plate tectonics, and solar energy radiations. The biological factors that affect climate change mostly include human activities including CO2 concentration increases due to fossil fuel combustion emissions and CO2 released by cement manufacturing, and by aerosols (i.e., articulate matter in the atmosphere), ozone depletion, deforestation and also by animal agriculture [1].

Climate change has a non-linearity effect on the global food supplies system when the atmospheric CO2 reaches a new level. Although one may assume that higher CO2 may increase the earth vegetations due to the need for CO2 in photosynthesis, increase in CO2 has negative effects on plant growth mostly because increases in CO2 increases the earth temperature causing greater soil moisture evaporations affecting the plant growth. However in certain cases, the increase in warmth along with rain falls has resulted in improved plant growth via the sequestration of airborne CO2 in plants.

As far as the global climate change is concerned, increase in CO2 is predicted to increase vegetation in Northern Latitudes; but to decrease the vegetation in Southern Latitudes, resulting in decline of amount of overall vegetation worldwide. Insects and pathogens can also increase under higher temperatures and the gradual increase in temperature can cause radical changes in vegetative stress, crop losses and desertification [2,3]. In extreme situations, plant and animal species can become extinct, as did due to the loss of rain forests during Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse (CRC) of event 300 million years ago [4].

Climate change is the fundamental threat to sustainable development, global food security and poverty eradication. All climate change experts agree on industrial governments needs on investing in agricultural adaptation to the climate change based on regions predicted to be affected such as South and Southeast Asia (e.g. Bangladesh, Philippines and Vietnam) and Africa (e.g. Malawi and Sudan) which are the major targets of the negative impacts of the climate change [5]. Furthermore, multilateral linked global strategies are needed to assure sustainable food supplies to feed the fast growing population of countries that are to become the further target of climate change [6].

While industrialized countries contribute to Greenhouse Gas emissions, most of these countries also provide opportunities via modern technologies to increase yield and productivity as an incentive mechanism to adapt to the climate change and to contribute to the environmental substantially and rural development in both industrialized and less-industrialized nations.

The United States National Academy of Sciences recently recommended [7] the needs for more studies to further understand and advance the science of climate change, and to assure sufficient and fast progress on adapting of the agriculture to predicted climate change via effectively de carbonizing of the economy by shifting from fossil fuels to renewable energy in order to cut planet-warming emissions to a net zero. Among many other measures, governments need to invest in changes in water resources via the science and tools of agricultural engineering, commit to reduce the temperature below the 2.4C and stabilize the target of 550ppmv CO2 (i.e., part per million volume CO2 equivalent) and reduce environmental pollutions within the next few decades [8].

Several models have been developed in order to be able to analyze and evaluate the global consequences to crop productivity and the risk of hunger. For example one model is based on cereal crops productions, prices and number of people at the risk of hunger due to climate change variables such as CO2 effects and increase in temperature [9]. In all models/scenarios studied, the industrialized nations are less at risk of climate changes while they are mostly considered to cause the earth’s climate change due to their industrializations. As an indirect measure of accepting that industrialized nations are to be taxed for polluting of the earth, and on socio-political humanitarian bases, industrialized nations have made commitments to set standards to their creation of CO2 emissions, and to transferring crop improvement technologies to less developed nations. Transfer of technologies indeed fits well within the concept of climate change adaptation and the fact that food security cannot become sustainable without its’ four factors of ‘food availability via modern technologies, food access, food sustainability and food utilization’. It is the goal of the United Nations to reach the above goals prior to an extreme climate change that is expected to become an uncontrolled disaster.


  1. Steinfeld H, Gerber P, Wassenaar T, Castel V, Rosales M et al. (2006)Livestock's long shadow: Environmental issues and options. Food and Drug Administration report on the Livestock, Environment and Development (LEAD) Initiative 416.
  2. Sahney S, Benton MJ, Falcon-Lang HJ (2010) Rainforest collapse triggered Pennsylvanian tetrapod diversification in Euramerica. Geology 38:1079–1082.
  3. Bachelet D, Neilson R, Lenihan JM, Drapek RJ (2001). "Climate Change Effects on Vegetation Distribution and Carbon Budget in the United States".Ecosystems4: 164–185.
  4. Parry ML, Rosenzweig C, Iglesias A, Livermore M, Fischer G (2004) Effects of climate change on global food production under SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environmental Change 14: 53–67.
  5. Lobell D, Burke M, Tebaldi C, Mastrandrea M, Falcon W et al. (2008) Prioritizing Climate Change Adaptation Needs for Food Security in 2030. Science 319: 607-610.
  6. Godfray H, Beddington J, Crute I, Haddad L, Lawrence D et al.(2010) Food secutity: The challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Sciences 327:812-818.
  7. America's Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change, National Research Council(2010) Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington D.C , The National Academies Press.
  8. W. Neil Adger, Irene Lorenzoni, Karen L. O'Brien (2009). Transforming the World: Adapting to Climate Change: Thresholds, Values, Governance. Cambridge University Press 491-500.
  9. Parrya ML, Rosenzweigb C, Iglesiasc A, Livermored M, Fischer G (2014) Effects of climate change on global food production under SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environmental Change 14: 53–67.

Citation: Sticklen M (2015) Studies of the Negative Effects of Climate Change on Crop Productivity and Global Food Security. Adv Crop Sci Tech 3:e129. Doi: 10.4172/2329-8863.1000e129

Copyright: © 2015 Sticklen M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.