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International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience - Understanding and addressing suicide in adolescents: A critical examination
ISSN: 1522-4821

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  • Mini Review   
  • Int J Emer Ment Health, Vol 26(1)
  • DOI: 10.4172/1522-4821.1000617

Understanding and addressing suicide in adolescents: A critical examination

Roger Apple*
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, USA
*Corresponding Author: Roger Apple, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, USA, Email:

Received: 28-Jan-2024 / Manuscript No. ijemhhr-24-126547 / Editor assigned: 01-Jan-2024 / PreQC No. ijemhhr-24-126547 / Reviewed: 15-Jan-2024 / QC No. ijemhhr-24-126547 / Revised: 20-Jan-2024 / Manuscript No. ijemhhr-24-126547 / Accepted Date: 28-Jan-2024 / Published Date: 26-Jan-2024 DOI: 10.4172/1522-4821.1000617 QI No. / ijemhhr-24-126547


Suicide in adolescents is a complex and pressing public health concern, with profound implications for individuals, families, and society at large. This paper provides a comprehensive review of current research on the prevalence, risk factors, and protective factors associated with adolescent suicide. It explores the multifaceted nature of this phenomenon, considering biological, psychological, and social factors that contribute to suicidal ideation and behaviors. Additionally, the paper examines the role of various interventions, both preventive and therapeutic, in addressing and mitigating the risk of suicide in adolescents

Keywords: Adolescent suicide, Suicidal ideation, Risk factors, Protective factors


Adolescent suicide, Suicidal ideation, Risk factors, Protective factors.


Suicide is a complex and devastating public health issue, and when it comes to adolescents, the stakes are particularly high. The teenage years are marked by rapid physical, emotional, and social changes, making this population vulnerable to various stressors that may contribute to suicidal thoughts and behaviors ((Brent DA, 2006).This article aims to explore the factors contributing to suicide in adolescents, the signs to look out for, and strategies for prevention and intervention. The role of various interventions, both preventive and therapeutic, in addressing and mitigating the risk of suicide in adolescents. By synthesizing existing knowledge, this review aims to inform future research endeavors and guide the development of effective strategies for suicide prevention and intervention in this vulnerable population (Brent DA, 1993).

MENTAL HEALTH DISORDERS: Adolescents grappling with mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, or substance abuse, face an increased risk of suicidal ideation. Peer relationships play a crucial role in adolescent development. Bullying, social exclusion, or feelings of isolation can significantly impact mental health and contribute to suicidal tendencies (Forte A, 2021). Turbulent family relationships, parental substance abuse, domestic violence, or a history of familial suicide can contribute to a teenager’s vulnerability. The intense academic environment, including high expectations and academic performance stress, can overwhelm adolescents and contribute to feelings of hopelessness (Greydanus DE, 2009).

Sudden shifts in behavior, withdrawal from friends and family, or a decline in academic performance can be indicative of distress. Expressions of hopelessness, feelings of being a burden, or talk of wanting to die should be taken seriously. Isolation from social activities, changes in friend groups, or a sudden disinterest in hobbies can be red flags. Engaging in self-harming behaviors, such as cutting or burning, may be an indication of underlying emotional pain.Comprehensive mental health education in schools and communities helps reduce stigma and encourages open conversations about mental health. Ensuring accessible and affordable mental health services for adolescents, including counseling and therapy, is crucial for early intervention (Hawton K, 2012).

Schools can implement anti-bullying programs, provide counseling services, and create a supportive environment for students. Encouraging open communication between parents and adolescents, fostering a non-judgmental atmosphere, and seeking professional help when needed are essential (Johnson GR, 2000). Communities should have easily accessible crisis hotlines, support groups, and mental health resources for adolescents in need. Mental health disorders encompass a broad range of conditions that affect an individual’s thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, significantly impacting their daily functioning and quality of life (Renaud J, 1999). These disorders can manifest in various forms, including mood disorders like depression and bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, and eating disorders like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Each disorder is characterized by distinct symptoms and often involves a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. The prevalence of mental health disorders is substantial, with millions of people worldwide experiencing these conditions, emphasizing the critical need for awareness, understanding, and effective mental health care (Shain B, 2016).

The stigma surrounding mental health disorders remains a significant barrier to seeking help and receiving adequate support. Negative stereotypes and misconceptions often lead to discrimination, isolation, and reluctance to discuss mental health openly. Addressing this stigma is essential in promoting a more inclusive and compassionate society, where individuals feel empowered to seek help without fear of judgment (Spirito A, 2006). Additionally, raising awareness about the prevalence and diversity of mental health disorders helps foster empathy and understanding, facilitating early intervention and reducing the overall burden of these conditions on individuals and communities (Van Heeringen, 2001).


Suicide in adolescents is a tragic and complex issue that demands a multifaceted approach. By addressing the underlying factors contributing to suicidal tendencies, promoting mental health awareness, and providing timely intervention and support, society can work together to create an environment where adolescents feel valued, supported, and understood. It is crucial for parents, educators, healthcare professionals, and communities to collaborate in fostering an atmosphere that prioritizes the well-being of our youth, ensuring that no adolescent feels alone in their struggle.


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