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Italy, country of south-central Europe, occupying a peninsula that juts deep into the Mediterranean Sea. Italy comprises some of the most varied and scenic landscapes on Earth and is often described as a country shaped like a boot. The capital is Rome, one of the oldest of the world’s great cities and a favorite of visitors, who go there to see its great monuments and works of art as well as to enjoy the city’s famed dolce vita, or "sweet life.
Italy’s political geography has been conditioned by this rugged landscape. With few direct roads between them, and with passage from one point to another traditionally difficult, Italy’s towns and cities have a history of self-sufficiency, independence, and mutual mistrust. At peace for more than half a century now, Italy’s 58 million inhabitants enjoy a high standard of living and a highly developed culture.
The Italian economy has progressed from being one of the weakest economies in Europe following World War II to being one of the most powerful. Its strengths are its metallurgical and engineering industries, and its weaknesses are a lack of raw materials and energy sources. More than four-fifths of Italy’s energy requirements are imported. At the end of the 20th century, Italy, seeking balance with other EU nations, brought its high inflation under control and adopted more conservative fiscal policies, including sweeping privatization. Against an EU average of 4.7 percent in 2008, 3.6 percent of the Italian population worked on the land, with as many agricultural labourers from the 8 regions in the south as from the 12 regions in the north and centre. Calabria and Basilicata have the largest concentrations of farm labourers.
Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute is the main Italian institute of orthopedics and traumatology. In 1981 the Italian Health Ministry gave Rizzoli the status of a 'Scientific research hospital' due to its high level of healthcare in orthopedics and traumatology. The Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology was founded in Rome in 1892. In the history of Italian Orthopaedics we must remember Putti and Delitala, both known all over the world, who first introduced modern Orthopaedics. Many Italians have provided an important contribution to the growth of the world of Orthopaedics. Among the many, certainly, will be specially remembered: Riccardo Galeazzi, in the 1930’s maximum acknowledgment referring to scoliosis; Oscar Scaglietti, among the first in the world who introduced the method of surgical treatment of disk hernations; Giorgio Monticelli, expert in hip pathology for both children and adults; Mario Campanacci, renowned for his study of tumors of the musculoskeletal system, known worldwide; Giovanni De Bastiani, pioneer of the external fixation and Renato Bombelli, innovator of the biomechanic and hip surgery.