Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
An Attempt of Non-human Primate Modeling of Schizophrenia with Neonatal Challenges of Epidermal Growth Factor | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2155-6105

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Open Access

Like us on:

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Case Report

An Attempt of Non-human Primate Modeling of Schizophrenia with Neonatal Challenges of Epidermal Growth Factor

Miwako Sakai1,2, Masafumi Kashiwahara3, Akiyoshi Kakita4 and Hiroyuki Nawa1*

1 Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8585, Japan

2 Department of Psychiatry, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 951-8510, Niigata, Japan

3 Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd., Miyanoura, Kagoshima 981-1394, Japan

4 Department of Pathology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8585, Japan

*Corresponding Author:
Hiroyuki Nawa
Department of Molecular Biology
Brain Research Institute Niigata University
Asahimachi-dori 1-757
Niigata 951-8585, Japan
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: December 17, 2013; Accepted date: January 24, 2014; Published date: January 31, 2014

Citation: Sakai M, Kashiwahara M, Kakita A, Nawa H (2014) An Attempt of Nonhuman Primate Modeling of Schizophrenia with Neonatal Challenges of Epidermal Growth Factor. J Addict Res Ther 5:170. doi: 10.4172/2155-6105.1000170

Copyright: © 2014 Sakai M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Inflammatory cytokines are implicated in the neurodevelopmental hypothesis for schizophrenia. Based on this hypothesis, we studied the establsihment of rodent models for schizophrenia by subcutaneously challenging rat or mouse neonates with various cytokines. Because of the physical and behavioral difference between animal species; however, it is difficult to fully evaluate the appropriateness of rodent models. To overcome this problem, we attempted to establish a non-human primate model of schizophrenia. We subcutaneously injected epidermal growth factor (EGF: 0.3 mg/kg/day) to 3 male neonatal cynomolgus monkeys for a total of 7 or 9 days from 14 days of age. During the following 4 or 5 years, no abnormal behaviors were observed in these monkeys treated with EGF; however, at the age of 6 years, 1 monkey exhibited abnormal behavioral traits: stereotypic movement, vocalization, alert motion, and self injury. It was noteworthy that the monkey often showed agitation and clapped its hands over its eyes and bit his hands in periods of illumination, although not under darkened conditions. The behavioral abnormalities except vocalization were ameliorated by 10-day oral treatment with risperidone at 0.10 mg/kg/day. Although this study needs to be replicated, this case report suggests the possibility that hyper EGF signals at the perinatal stage of non-human primates result in post-pubertal behavioral/cognitive deficits, which possibly imitate some pathological features of human schizophrenia.


Recommended Conferences

11th World congress on Addictive Disorders & Addiction Therapy

London, United Kingdom
Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 4229

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy received 4229 citations as per Google Scholar report

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy peer review process verified at publons
Indexed In
  • CAS Source Index (CASSI)
  • Index Copernicus
  • Google Scholar
  • Sherpa Romeo
  • Open J Gate
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • Academic Keys
  • JournalTOCs
  • SafetyLit
  • China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)
  • Electronic Journals Library
  • RefSeek
  • Hamdard University
  • OCLC- WorldCat
  • SWB online catalog
  • Virtual Library of Biology (vifabio)
  • Publons
  • Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research
  • Euro Pub
Share This Page