Diurnal Evening Type is Associated with Current Smoking, Nicotine Dependence and Nicotine Intake in the Population Based National FINRISK 2007 StudyUlla Broms1,2*, Marjaana Pennanen1,2, Kristiina Patja2,3, Hanna Ollila2, Tellervo Korhonen1,2, Aino Kankaanpää2, Ari Haukkala2,4, Annamari Tuulio- Henriksson2,5, Markku Koskenvuo1, Erkki Kronholm2, Tiina Laatikainen2, Markku Peltonen2, Timo Partonen2and Jaakko Kaprio1,2,6
- *Corresponding Author:
- Ulla Broms, Ph.D
Department of Public Health, Hjelt Institute
University of Helsinki, P.O.Box 41
00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
Tel: +358-50-4151278, +358-40-5896788
Received November 22, 2011; Accepted January 18, 2012; Published January 25, 2012
Citation: Broms U, Pennanen M, Patja K, Ollila H, Korhonen T, et al.(2012) Diurnal Evening Type is Associated with Current Smoking, Nicotine Dependence and Nicotine Intake in the Population Based National FINRISK 2007 Study. J Addict Res Ther S2:002. doi:10.4172/2155-6105.S2-002
Copyright: © 2012 Broms U, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Aims: To examine whether smoking habits, nicotine dependence (ND) and plasma cotinine levels differ by diurnal type.
Design: Data originated from the national FINRISK 2007 survey. Regression analyses were calculated to examine the association between diurnal type and smoking status, ND, and nicotine intake.
Participants: 7091 FINRISK participants with smoking and diurnal type information and a subset of 1746 ever smokers with detailed smoking, and ND assessments.
Measurements: Diurnal type assessed with a six-item sum scale was categorized as morning, intermediate and evening type. Smoking status was determined as current (daily or occasional), former, and never smokers. ND was measured with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC), and the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). For current smokers, plasma cotinine was analyzed as biochemical measurement of nicotine intake.
Findings: Evening type was associated with current smoking (OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.40, 1.97). A significant association with diurnal type was seen for FTND among men (beta= -0.46, 95% CI -0.72, -0.21), sexes combined for HONC (beta= -0.31, 95% CI -0.52, -0.11) and NDSS (beta= -0.86, 95% CI -1.43, -0.29) and for cotinine among men (beta= -0.73, 95% CI -1.16, -0.29). Adjustment for depressive symptoms attenuated the association of diurnal type with NDSS to be non-significant.
Conclusions: Diurnal type was associated with multiple ND measures and nicotine intake, interestingly more so among men. Evening type persons are at higher risk of dependence, but depressive symptoms attenuates this association clearly.