Effectiveness of Herbicide Formulation Made from the Main Raw Material of Fermented Coconut Water in Plantation Weeds at Various Altitudes*Corresponding Author:
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Previous research has found a new type of herbicide made from fermented coconut water, containing organic materials and microorganisms which are environmentally friendly. A series of tests need to be done to see its effectiveness. This study aims to determine the best formulation of herbicides in controlling weeds in lowland smallholder oil palm, medium plain smallholder rubber and plateau smallholder coffee. The experiment used a Randomized Block Design, consisting of nine treatments of a herbicide (Unihaz) formulations with three replications. The treatments were Unihaz 1, Unihaz 2, Unihaz 3, Unihaz 4, Unihaz 5, Unihaz 6, Unihaz 7, Unihaz 8 (glyphosate 2 kg ha-1) and Unihaz 9 (fermented coconut water). The results of the study concluded that the dominant weeds in oil palm plantations were Paspalum conjugatum P.J. Bergius, Ottochloa nodosa (Kunth) Dandy, and Asystasiagangetica (L.)T.Anderson) (81.11%), in rubber plantations were Selaginella kraussiana (Kunze) A. Braun, Cynodon dactiyon (L.) Pers., Imperata cylindrica Raeusch, Mikania micrantha Kunth and Melastoma malabathricum L. (65.7%), and in coffee plantations were Brachiaria ramosa (L.) Stapf., Brachiaria setigera (Retz.) C.E.Hubb., Digitaria cyliaris (Ret.) Koeler, Ottochloa nodosa (L.) Kunth) Dandy, Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn., Mikania micrantha Kunth, and Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott (66.98%). The herbicide formula of Unihaz 5 (fermented coconut water + N- (phosphonomethyl) glycine 10.8 g L-1, and Unihaz 7 (fermented coconut water + N- (phosphonomethyl) glycine 10.8 g L-1) effectively control weeds in lowland smallholder oil palm, medium plain smallholder rubber and plateau smallholder coffee, as does the formula of glyphosate at a dose of 2 kg ha-1. Weeds that were still founded in the treatment of the Unihaz 5 formula were Borreria latifolia (Aubl.) K. Sch., Melastoma malabatricum L., Sida acuta Burm, f. (Broad leaf) and Selaginella kraussiana (Kunze) A. Braun (fern), in the Unihaz 7 were Borreria latifolia (Aubl.) K.Schum, and Selaginella kraussiana (Kunze) A. Braun, and in the Unihaz 8 Mikania micrantha Kunth (broad leaf), weeds of poales and sedges were not found in all of three treatments.