Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
Elimination of Grapevine Bois Noir Phytoplasma by Tissue Culture Coupled or not With Heat Therapy or Hot Water Treatment | OMICS International | Abstract
Advances in Crop Science and Technology
Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.
This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)
Elimination of Grapevine Bois Noir Phytoplasma by Tissue Culture Coupled or not With Heat Therapy or Hot Water Treatment
L Chalak1,2*, A Elbitar1, N Mourad1, C Mortada1 and E Choueiri1
1Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, Tal Amara, P.O. Box 287, Zahlé, Lebanon
2Lebanese University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Dekwaneh, Beirut, Lebanon
Corresponding Author :
Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute
Tal Amara, P.O. Box 287, Zahlé, Lebanon Fax: + 961 3 211855 E-mail:[email protected]
Received January 14, 2013; Accepted May 10, 2013; Published May 18, 2013
Citation: Chalak L, Elbitar A, Mourad N, Mortada C, Choueiri E (2013) Elimination of Grapevine Bois Noir Phytoplasma by Tissue Culture Coupled or not With Heat Therapy or Hot Water Treatment. Adv Crop Sci Tech 1:107. doi: 10.4172/2329-8863.1000107
Background and Aims: Bois Noir phytoplasma is one of the most widespread yellows in grape industry in the European and Middle Eastern countries causing damages of increasing concern for the growers. So far, traditional before hot water therapy was not totally successfully in controlling this disease as it interfered with the vitality of woody propagation material leading to a weak recovery of grafted vines. This study examined the efficiency of tissue culture techniques to eliminate Bois Noir phytoplasma from grapevines.
Methods: Six tissue culture protocols were tested on Chardonnay grapevine infected by Bois Noir by using stem cuttings and shoot tips associated or not to heat treatment at 38 ± 1°C for 40 days from culture initiation; and stem cuttings combined with a hot water bath at 50°C for 15 and 30 min prior to culture initiation.
Key results: The protocols were all suitable, either for shoot regeneration or for phytoplasma elimination. Stem cutting culture coupled with heat or hot water treatments appeared to be the most effective treatments leading to a correct rate of survival explants and yielding to 100% sanitized shoots.
Conclusion: On the basis of these results, the stem cutting culture coupled with heat or hot water treatment and followed by micropropagation of sanitized explants, appears to be a good candidate to become a routine technique for producing phytoplasma-free vines within certification programs.