Exercise Intervention for Osteoporosis Prevention in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic ReviewMishaal Al Khaldi*
Senior Physical therapist, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia
- *Corresponding Author:
- Dr. Mishaal Al khaldi
Senior Physical therapist
King Fahad Specialist Hospital
Dammam, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: November 11, 2016; Accepted date: December 19, 2016; Published date: December 26, 2016
Citation: Al Khaldi M (2016) Exercise Intervention for Osteoporosis Prevention in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review. J Nov Physiother 7:323. doi: 10.4172/2165-7025.1000323
Copyright: © 2016 Al Khaldi M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
A varied exercise regimen is widely used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, yet little is known about the most effective types of exercise, their frequency of use and the results of combining exercise with calcium and vitamin D. The aim of this review dissertation was to systematically review the evidence of the effectiveness of different types of exercise on bone mineral density in order to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
A wide search was conducted to identify all the potential relevant randomised controlled trials using both electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro, AMED, SPORTDiscus and ScienceDirect) and a manual search. The included trials were rated for risk of bias using the Jadad scale.
From an initial list of 524 potentially relevant studies, 27 randomised controlled trials of preventive exercise of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with Bone Mineral Density (BMD) as an outcome measure were discussed in this review. A considerable number of the available trials had small sample size, high risk of bias, lack of long term follow-up.
The results suggest weight-bearing exercises are effective regardless of their duration, with or without calcium and vitamin D; non-weight bearing exercises might be effective but over a prolonged period of time and with calcium and vitamin D added. A combination of these exercises had positive effects on BMD when combined with HRT. Further, RCTs with a long-term follow up, a low risk of bias and larger sample sizes are needed in the future.