alexa GATES as the Unique Tool for Simulation of Electrolytic
ISSN: 2155-9872

Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
Open Access

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Review Article

GATES as the Unique Tool for Simulation of Electrolytic Redox and Non-Redox Systems

Anna Maria Michalowska-Kaczmarczyk1 and Tadeusz Michalowski2*

1Department of Oncology, The University Hospital in Cracow, Poland

2Faculty of Engineering and Chemical Technology, Technical University of Cracow, Poland

*Corresponding Author:
Tadeusz Michalowski
Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology
Cracow University of Technology
Warszawska 24, 31-155 Cracow, Poland
Tel: +48126282035
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: August 14, 2014; Accepted date: September 03, 2014; Published date: September 08, 2014

Citation: Michalowska-Kaczmarczyk AM, Michalowski T (2014) GATES as the Unique Tool for Simulation of Electrolytic Redox and Non-Redox Systems. J Anal Bioanal Tech 5:204 doi: 10.4172/2155-9872.1000204

Copyright: © 2014 Michalowska-Kaczmarczyk AM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited



The Generalized Approach to Electrolytic Systems (GATES), based on physical (charge conservation), physicochemical (conservation of elements) and chemical (mass action) laws is the best theory applicable for computer simulation of equilibrium, non-equilibrium and metastable, mono- and polyphase electrolytic redox and non-redox systems. The Generalized Electron Balance (GEB) concept, related to electrolytic redox systems, is put in context with the principle of conservation of all elements in electrolytic redox systems, with aqueous, non-aqueous or mixedsolvent media. Two equivalent approaches to GEB are presented, and termed as the Approach I and Approach II to GEB. The GEB, that enters GATES as GATES/GEB, is fully compatible with charge and concentration balances and completes the set of equations necessary for thermodynamic resolution of redox systems. Computer simulation of such systems is based on all attainable physicochemical knowledge involved in the related algorithm, solvable with use of an iterative computer program, and then presented graphically. This paper is referred mainly to dynamic redox systems, realized according to titrimetric mode. The speciation diagrams for dynamic redox systems are perceived as a reasonable alternative to (static) Pourbaix diagrams. The GEB concept, unknown before 1992, is perceived as the law of the matter conservation, as the general law of Nature. From the GATES viewpoint, the stoichiometric reactions are only the basis to formulate the related equilibrium constants. GATES is also the basis for Generalized Equivalence Mass (GEM) concept, formulated with none relevance to the stoichiometry of chemical reaction notation. From the GATES viewpoint, the stoichiometry is a superfluous concept.


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