Graft Materials in Oral Surgery: RevisionXavier Rosello Labres1, Alvar Rosello Camps1, Enric Jane Salas1, Rui Albuquerque2, Eugenio Velasco Ortega3 and Jose Lopez-Lopez1*
- Corresponding Author:
- Jose Lopez-Lopez, DDS, PhD
Medical and Surgery Doctor
Doctor Specialist in Stomatology
Professor of Oral Medicine at the School of Dentistry
University of Barcelona, Spain
Received date: November 22, 2013; Accepted date: February 06, 2014; Published date: February 13, 2014
Citation: Labres XR, Camps AR, Salas EJ, Albuquerque R, Ortega EV, et al. (2014) Graft Materials in Oral Surgery: Revision. J Biomim Biomater Tissue Eng 19:124. doi:10.4172/1662-100X.1000124
Copyright: © 2014 Labres XR, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Oral implantology is a common procedure in dentistry, especially for fully or partially edentulous patients. The implants must be placed in the best location from both the aesthetic and functional point of view. Because of this it is increasingly more frequent to resort to regeneration techniques that use substitutes of the bone itself, in order to be able to insert the implants in the most appropriate location.
Material and Methodology: A review was performed on the literature from the last ten years based on the following search limitations: “graft materials", "allograft", "xenograft", "autologous graft” and "dentistry”.
Results: 241 works were obtained that after reading their respective summaries, they were reduced to 38, and 9 previous works were included in order to summarize the concepts.
Discussion: Autologous grafts are the "gold standard" of the bone regeneration. They have obvious advantages, but they also have drawbacks. This is why allogeneic and xenogeneic tissues are used. The former because of their clear similarity with the recipient's tissue and the latter due to their wide availability. Given that these grafts also have drawbacks, the industry has developed synthetic materials that have properties similar to those of human bone tissue. However, as of today, the ideal material to substitute human bone has not yet been found. In recent years the tendency has been to combine these synthetic materials with the patient's own bone, which is extracted during drilling in implant placement, with bone marrow aspiration, or with bone morphogenetic proteins. Thus the intention is to equip these substances with the osteogenic capacity.
Conclusions: There is currently no ideal graft material, with the exception of those materials that come directly from the patient. We hope that in the coming years we will have products that will allow us to perform rehabilitations with better results and provide a better quality of life for our patients, especially those who have more complex situations to resolve, like the patients that are operated on for head and neck cancer.