Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar


High Frequency of CYP3A4*1B among Opiate Dependent Patients in Malaysia | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2155-6105

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Open Access

Like us on:

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Research Article

High Frequency of CYP3A4*1B among Opiate Dependent Patients in Malaysia

Nasir Mohamad1,2*, Nurfadhlina M2, Nazila T2, Ahmad A2, Nor Hidayah Abu Bakar3, Hussein H4, Khafidz I5 and Ismail R2,6

1Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia

2Pharmacogenetics Research Group, Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia

3Department of Pathology, Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kelantan, Malaysia

4Department of Psychological Medicine, Universiti of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

5Klinik Dr Khafidz, 43000 Semenyih Bandar Teknologi Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia

6Pharmacogenetics Research Group, Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia

*Corresponding Author:
Nasir Mohamad
Department of Emergency Medicine/Institute for
Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), School of Medical Sciences
Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia
16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Tel: 609-7672407
Fax: 609-7657267

Received July 14, 2012; Accepted July 24, 2012; Published July 27, 2012

Citation: Mohamad N, Nurfadhlina M, Nazila T, Ahmad A, Abu Bakar NH, et al. (2012) High Frequency of CYP3A4*1B among Opiate Dependent Patients in Malaysia. J Addict Res Ther 3:130. doi:10.4172/2155-6105.1000130

Copyright: © 2012 Mohamad N, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


The sharing of injection needles among drug user is a leading cause for the spread of HIV/AIDS. Malaysia introduced methadone as a management of heroin dependents to reduce HIV spread. Methadone has variable pharmacokinetics and CYP3A4 has been implicated in its metabolism. The objective of this study therefore was to determine if polymorphisms exist with CYP3A4 among opiate users in Malaysia. This study was approved by Ethics Committees at University of Malaya and Universiti Sains Malaysia. Control subjects comprised blood donors, students and residents of a village. Opiate-dependents were from methadone clinics and drop-in centers. They signed a written-informed consent to participate and gave blood for DNA CYP3A4 genotyping. DNA was extracted using QIAgen DNA mini kit. A nested two-step allele specific PCR method was developed to detect CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A4*3, CYP3A4*4, CYP3A4*5, CYP3A4*6, CYP3A4*7, CYP3A4*8, CYP3A4*9, CYP3A4*10, CYP3A4*11, CYP3A4*12, CYP3A4*13, CYP3A4*14, CYP3A4*15 and CYP3A4*16. Normal controls comprised Malays, Chinese and Indians but opiate-dependent subjects were majority Malay males. Control subjects all carried the wild-type gene. Mutant CYP3A4*1B allele was found in 2.17% of opiate-dependent subjects. Our results revealed that CYP3A4 was not polymorphic among Malaysian Malays, Chinese and Indians who were not opiate-dependent. To date, we are not aware of any study to associate CYP3A4 polymorphism and heroin addiction. It is conceivable that altered CYP3A4 function may contribute towards addiction liabilities in subsets of individuals. We conclude that CYP3A4 is polymorphic among heroin-dependent individuals. The mutation, CYP3A4*1B is not silent. This may have implications on heroin addiction liability as well as on dose requirements for MMT and HAART.


Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 4859

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy received 4859 citations as per Google Scholar report

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy peer review process verified at publons
Indexed In
  • CAS Source Index (CASSI)
  • Index Copernicus
  • Google Scholar
  • Sherpa Romeo
  • Open J Gate
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • Academic Keys
  • JournalTOCs
  • SafetyLit
  • China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)
  • Electronic Journals Library
  • RefSeek
  • Hamdard University
  • OCLC- WorldCat
  • SWB online catalog
  • Virtual Library of Biology (vifabio)
  • Publons
  • Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research
  • Euro Pub
Share This Page