Levels of Interleukin -10 in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and its Role in the Initiation and Progression of Gingivitis to Periodontitis
- *Corresponding Author:
- Dr. Angel Fenol
Department of Periodontics
Amrita School of Dentistry
Kochi 682041, Kerala, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: April 03, 2014; Accepted Date: April 29, 2014; Published Date: May 07, 2014
Citation: Feno Al, Sasidharan RK, Krishnan S (2014) Levels of Interleukin -10 in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and its Role in the Initiation and Progression of Gingivitis to Periodontitis. J Oral Hyg Health 2:135. doi: 10.4172/2332-0702.1000135
Copyright: © 2014 Fenol A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Virulence of microorganisms contribute to initiation and progression of periodontal disease but genetic contribution to pathogenesis of periodontitis and specific genetic markers are found to be strong indicators of susceptibility to periodontitis in adults. The purpose of this study was to determine whether interindividual variation in interleukin-10 levels in patients with similar levels of oral hygiene has a role in preventing progression of gingivitis to periodontitis. Methods: In the present study, 91 subjects were divided into three groups based on GI (Gingival Index), OHI-S (Oral Hygiene Index-Simples), PPD (Probing pocket depth) and CAL (Clinical attachment level) into healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis groups. GCF (Gingival Crevicular Fluid) samples were collected from each patient using micropipette and IL-10 (interleukin -10) levels were analyzed using ELISA. Results: The highest mean concentration of IL-10 was obtained for gingivitis group (1128.19 ± 532.90 mg/ml) and lowest for control group (648.96 ± 505.75). The mean IL-10 level of periodontitis (956.22 ± 475.49) group was found to be intermediate between the other two groups. There was statistically significant difference in IL-10 levels between three groups (p<0.05). On pair wise comparison, there was statistically significant difference in IL-10 levels between control and gingivitis group (p<0.05) and control and periodontitis group (p<0.05). But difference in IL-10 levels between gingivitis and periodontitis group did not reach statistically significance (p>0.05). Conclusions: The results suggest that IL-10 levels are higher in patients with gingivitis than whose condition progressed to periodontitis. In control group, IL-10 level was least suggesting role of bacterial factors in initiating IL-10 response. The data suggests the protective role of anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 in limiting progression of gingivitis to periodontitis.