alexa Non-Hepatic Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Treatment and Care | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2332-0877

Journal of Infectious Diseases & Therapy
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Review Article

Non-Hepatic Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Treatment and Care

Wambani RJ1*, Ogola PE2, Makori AW2, Rachuonyo HO3 and Kiboi NG2
1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Kenyatta University, Kenya
2Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Kenyatta University, Kenya
3School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Kenyatta University, Kenya
*Corresponding Author : Wambani RJ
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences
Kenyatta University, Kenya
Tel: 254728128031
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: December 26, 2015 Accepted: February 22, 2016 Published: February 26, 2016
Citation: Wambani RJ, Ogola PE, Makori AW, Rachuonyo HO, Kiboi NG (2016) Non-Hepatic Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Treatment and Care. J Infect Dis Ther 4:269. doi:10.4172/2332-0877.1000269
Copyright: © 2016 Wambani RJ, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


High-level viral replication occurs when HIV enters the body. Due to frequent mutations, the virus becomes resistant in the body and persists in memory T cells making it incurable. Lifelong therapy is then required to suppress replication of the virus in the cells. The drugs available for HIV care such as Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, Protease Inhibitors, Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, Entry and Fusion Inhibitors and Integrase inhibitors have been documented to cause adverse effects in patients. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system, resulting to numerous drug-drug interactions. Adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy should be monitored frequently. Monitoring should include complete blood counts and comprehensive metabolic profiles every three to six months. Lipid profiles and urinalysis for proteinuria should be done after every year. Long-term morbidity due to antiretroviral therapy includes renal, liver, glucose, and lipid abnormalities, and bone disease as well as cardiovascular disease. With some exceptions for lipid management, these morbidities can be managed. This review aims at describing different non-hepatic adverse effects of antiretrovirals as well as factors associated with them.


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