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Note on Inflammatory Cytokine | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2576-3881

Journal of Cytokine Biology
Open Access

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Note on Inflammatory Cytokine

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Copyright: © 0  . This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 
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Abstract

Cytokines are regulators of infection, immune responses, inflammation, and trauma in host responses. Many cytokines work to make illness worse (proinflammatory), while others work to decrease inflammation and encourage healing (anti-inflammatory). Attention has also focused on blocking cytokines, which, especially during overwhelming infection, are harmful to the host.

A type of signaling molecule (a cytokine) that is secreted from immune cells such as helper T cells (Th) and macrophages, and certain other types of cells that promote inflammation, is an inflammatory cytokine or proinflammatory cytokine. They comprise of  interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-12 and IL-18, alpha tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a), interferon gamma (IFNγ) and stimulating factor granulocyte-macrophage colony (GM-CSF) and play an important role in mediating the innate immune response. Inflammatory cytokines are primarily formed by inflammatory reactions and are involved in their upregulation. Excessive chronic inflammatory cytokine production contributes to inflammatory diseases associated with various diseases, such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Depression and other neurological diseases have also been linked to dysregulation. To maintain health, a balance is necessary between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Aging and exercise also play a role in inflammation when proinflammatory cytokines are liberated.

Inflammatory cytokines play a role in initiating the inflammatory response and controlling the host defense against the inherent immune response mediating pathogens. Some inflammatory cytokines have additional functions, such as serving as growth factors. Pathological pain is also caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-a. It is also present in nociceptive DRG neurons, while IL-1β is produced by monocytes and macrophages. In neuronal reaction to an injury, IL-6 plays a role. TNF-alpha is a well  recognized  proinflammatory cytokine found in glia and neurons. In order to control apoptosis in the cells, TNF-alpha is also involved in various signaling pathways. Excessive chronic development of inflammatory cytokines leads to inflammatory diseases. They have been related to various diseases, such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Depression and other neurological disorders have also been related to dysregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. To preserve health, a balance is important between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Aging and exercise also play a role in inflammation when proinflammatory cytokines are published.

A cytokine that promotes systemic inflammation is a proinflammatory cytokine. IL-1 and TNF alpha are examples. Interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor   these are proinflammatory cytokines and they  produce fever, inflammation, tissue destruction and, in certain cases, shock and death when administered to humans. A variety of different, but highly basic, strategies involving neutralizing antibodies, soluble receptors, receptor antagonists and protease inhibitors that turn inactive precursors into active, mature molecules are used to reduce the biological activity of IL-1 and TNF.

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