Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar


Oral Nicotine Self-Administration in Rodents | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2155-6105

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Open Access

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Review Article

Oral Nicotine Self-Administration in Rodents

Allan C Collins2, Sakire Pogun1*, Tanseli Nesil1 and Lutfiye Kanit1

1Center for Brain Research, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey

2Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Sakire Pogun
Ege University, Center for Brain Research
Bornova, 35100, Izmir, Turkey
Tel: +90 532 5846272
Fax: +90 232 3746597

strong>Received April 18, 2012; Accepted May 15, 2012; Published May 18, 2012

Citation: Pogun S, Collins AC, Nesil T, Kanit L (2012) Oral Nicotine Self- Administration in Rodents. J Addict Res Ther S2:004. doi:10.4172/2155-6105.S2-004

Copyright: © 2012 Pogun S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Nicotine addiction is a complex process that begins with self-administration. Consequently, this process has been studied extensively using animal models. A person is usually not called “smoker” if s/he has smoked for a week or a month in a lifetime; in general, a smoker has been smoking for many years. Furthermore, a smoker has free access to cigarettes and can smoke whenever she/he wants, provided there are no social/legal restraints. Subsequently, in an animal model of tobacco addiction, it will be desirable to expose the animal to free access nicotine for 24 hours/day for many weeks, starting at different stages of development.

Oral nicotine self-administration studies in rodents present some important advantages and mimic human smoking nicely. For example, animals are not food deprived, are exposed to nicotine choice for up to 24 hours a day for extended periods, environmental cues and learning does not interfere with self-administration of nicotine. Oral alcohol selfadministration has been used in rodents for over five decades and has contributed significantly to the understanding of alcohol addiction.

We provide a review of literature and compare oral alcohol and nicotine intake in rodents. Methodological issues, post ingestional and systemic effects, discrimination and the important influences of taste, genetic vulnerability, sex and age on intake are discussed. The review ends with recommendations for future research on oral self-administration of nicotine.


Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 4859

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy received 4859 citations as per Google Scholar report

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy peer review process verified at publons
Indexed In
  • CAS Source Index (CASSI)
  • Index Copernicus
  • Google Scholar
  • Sherpa Romeo
  • Open J Gate
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • Academic Keys
  • JournalTOCs
  • SafetyLit
  • China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)
  • Electronic Journals Library
  • RefSeek
  • Hamdard University
  • OCLC- WorldCat
  • SWB online catalog
  • Virtual Library of Biology (vifabio)
  • Publons
  • Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research
  • Euro Pub
Share This Page