Passive Response to Stress in Adolescent Female and Adult Male Mice after Intermittent Nicotine Exposure in AdolescencePanayotis Thanos1,2*, Foteini Delis2, Lauren Rosko2 and Nora D Volkow1
- *Corresponding Author:
- Dr. Panayotis Thanos
Behavioral Neuropharmacology & Neuroimaging Lab
Department of Medicine
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Upton, NY, USA
Tel: 631 344-7364
Fax: 631 344-5311
E-mail: [email protected]
Received March 07, 2013; Accepted April 08, 2013; Published April 23, 2013
Citation: Thanos P, Delis F, Rosko L, Volkow ND (2013) Passive Response to Stress in Adolescent Female and Adult Male Mice after Intermittent Nicotine Exposure in Adolescence. J Addict Res Ther S6:007. doi:10.4172/2155-6105.S6-007
Copyright: © 2013 Thanos P, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Smoking is frequently co-morbid with depression. Although it is recognized that depression increases the risk for smoking, it is unclear if early smoking exposure may increase the risk for depression. To test this possibility we assessed the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on the Forced Swim Test (FST), which is used as a measure of passive coping, and depressive-like behavior in rodents, and on the open field test (OFT), which is used as a measure of locomotion and exploratory behavior. Male and female mice received daily saline or nicotine (0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg) injections from postnatal day (PD) 30 to PD 44. FST and OFT were performed either 1 or 30 days after the last injection (PD 45 and PD 74, respectively). In females, treatment with 0.3 mg/kg nicotine lead to increased FST immobility (64%) and decreased OFT locomotor activity (12%) one day following the last nicotine injection (PD 45); while no effects were observed in adulthood (PD 74). In contrast, on PD45, nicotine treatment did not change the male FST immobility but lead to lower OFT locomotor activity (0.6 mg/kg, 10%). In adulthood (PD 74), both nicotine doses lead to higher FST immobility (87%) in males while 0.6 mg/kg nicotine to lower OFT locomotor activity (13%). The results (i) identify females as more vulnerable to the immediate withdrawal that follows nicotine discontinuation in adolescence and (ii) suggest that adolescent nicotine exposure may enhance the risk for passive response towards unavoidable stress in adult males.