Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar


Patient Radiation Dose Assessment in Pelvic X-ray Examination in Ghana | OMICS International | Abstract

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Research Article

Patient Radiation Dose Assessment in Pelvic X-ray Examination in Ghana

Eric K Ofori1*, William K Antwi1, Diane N Scutt2 and Matt Ward3
1Department of Radiography, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Korle-Bu-Accra, Ghana
2School of Health Sciences, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
3Integrated Radiological Services Limited, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Corresponding Author : Eric K Ofori
Department of Radiography
School of Allied Health Sciences
College of Health Sciences
University of Ghana, Korle-Bu-Accra, Ghana
Tel: 233-244-655-156
Received July 27, 2013; Accepted October 22, 2013; Published October 27, 2013
Citation: Ofori EK, Antwi WK, Scutt DN, Ward M (2013) Patient Radiation Dose Assessment in Pelvic X-ray Examination in Ghana. OMICS J Radiology 2:151. doi: 10.4172/2167-7964.1000151
Copyright: © 2013 Ofori EK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Protecting the gonads of children and adults is of particular importance during diagnostic imaging of the pelvis since evidence suggests that X-rays could cause direct damage to the gonad which could result in mutation. Gonad shielding during diagnostic X-ray procedures is an effective way of reducing dose to patients’ reproductive organs and reduces the risk of genetic effects in future generations. Given the potential harmful effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation, it is important not just to provide gonad shielding, but also to measure patient doses, and reduce them where possible. The aim of this study was to provide patient dose estimates for pelvic examination being undertaken at selected diagnostic centers in Ghana as a baseline data for pelvic dose optimization in Ghana. Dose measurements were calculated on 323 patients (137 (42%) male, 186 (58%) female, ages, 38.56 yr ± 9.0; range 20–68). The Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) was determined by an indirect method, using the patient’s anatomical data and expo¬sure parameters utilized for the specific examination. The Quality Assurance Dose Database software (QADDs) developed by Integrated Radiological Services Ltd. in Liverpool, UK was used to generate the ESD values. There were variations in the technique factors used in all the centers as compared to the recommendations in the European Commission (EC) quality criteria. Eighty percent of the hospitals recorded lower ESD values below IAEA recommended diagnostic reference levels (10 mGy) and 40% of the hospitals exceeded the UK national reference value (4 mGy). The varia¬tions in the data recorded demonstrate the importance of creating awareness by the radiographic staff on quality assurance and standardization of protocols to ensure satisfactory standards and optimized radiation dose to patients and staff.