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Research Article

Phenolic Compounds from Diluted Acid Hydrolysates of Olive Stones: Effect of Overliming

Jeanne Andary1,2*, Jaqueline Maalouly3, Rosette Ouaini3, Hanna Chebib3, Marc Beyrouthy4, Douglas N Rutledge1,5 and Naim Ouaini2
1AgroParisTech, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, 16 rue Claude Bernard, Bernard, 75005 Paris, France
2Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Holy Spirit University of Kaslik, 446 Jounieh, Lebanon
3Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Libanese University, 90656, Jdaideth El Maten, Fanar, Lebanon
4Faculty of Agronomy, Holy Spirit University of Kaslik, 446 Jounieh, Lebanon
5INRA/AgroParisTech UMR1145 Food Process Engineering GENIAL, 16, rue Claude Bernard 75005 Paris, France
Corresponding Author : Jeanne Andary
Departement of Chemistry and life Science
Holy Spirit University of Kaslik, 446 Jounieh
Lebanon
Tel: +9619600900
E-mail: [email protected]
Received January 18, 2013; Accepted February 28, 2013; Published March 12, 2013
Citation: Andary J, Maalouly J, Ouaini R, Chebib H, Beyrouthy M, et al. (2013) Phenolic Compounds from Diluted Acid Hydrolysates of Olive Stones: Effect of Overliming. Adv Crop Sci Tech 1:103. doi: 10.4172/2329-8863.1000103
Copyright: © 2013 Andary J, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Annually, important quantities of olive residue are produced and may be the source of ecological damages. Like agricultural residues, which are abundant, renewable, low cost raw materials, olive stones are mainly subjected to biotechnological or chemical modifications in order to be transformed into valuable products (biofuels, biofertilizers, animal feed and chemical feed-stock). In aim to valorize olive stones, we are trying to identify the presence of different phenolic compounds in their dilute-acid hydrolysate (DAH). Phenolic compounds (PC) are considered as toxic material for fermentation process, therefore, their behavior are studied under overliming treatment with distinct pH levels (10 and 12), temperature (25 and 60°C) and detoxification time (15,30 and 60 min). Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds were performed by two chromatographic methods: Gas Chromatography
mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). A liquid-liquid microextraction procedure is used in conjunction with silylation prior to the analysis of the compounds by GC-MS. Derivatives of benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, simple phenols, and aldehydes were identified. For all treatments combinations, pH 12 was more effective in reducing the total amount of phenolic compounds. Treatment of the hydrolysate with alkali at pH 12, 60°C and 60 min resulted in up to 29% decrease in the concentration of total phenolic compounds. Tyrosol, which was the main phenolic compound decreased by 73% under the same treatment. Chromatographic methods contributed to an accurate quantification and better understanding of the behavior of each PC, solely.

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