alexa Prevalence and Dependency of Tobacco Use in an Indigenous Population of Kerala, India
ISSN: 2332-0702

Journal of Oral Hygiene & Health
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Research Article

Prevalence and Dependency of Tobacco Use in an Indigenous Population of Kerala, India

Janakiram C1*, Joseph J1, Vasudevan S2, Taha F1, Deepan Kumar CV1, Venkitachalam R1, Antony B1, Sanjeevan V1 and Varghese NJ1

1Department of Public Health Dentistry, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India

2AmritaKripa Charitable Hospital, Kerala, India

*Corresponding Author:
Chandrashekar Janakiram
Department of Public Health Dentistry
Amrita School of Dentistry
Kochi, Kerala 682041, India
Tel: +9104842801234
Fax: +9104842802011
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: January 02, 2016; Accepted Date: January 30, 2016; Published Date: February 07, 2016

Citation: Janakiram C, Joseph J, Vasudevan S, Taha F, Deepan Kumar CV, et al. (2016) Prevalence and Dependency of Tobacco Use in an Indigenous Population of Kerala, India. J Oral Hyg Health 4:198. doi:10.4172/2332-0702.1000198

Copyright: © 2016 Janakiram C, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Background: Kerala has a large number of tribal communities where the prevalence of tobacco related oral mucosal lesions is alarmingly high. This coupled with ignorance regarding harmful effects of tobacco use is an emerging public health problem. Purpose: To find out dependency of tobacco use in an indigenous population of Wayanad, India.
Methods: A cross- sectional study was designed in the tribal colonies of Kalpetta, Kerala. A multi-stage cluster sampling design was adopted to select the indigenous people living in colonies. A structured close-ended interview was conducted using a 27-item questionnaire, modified and adapted from the National Institute for Mental Health and Neurosciences, India (NIMHANS). The questionnaire consisted of five domains. To assess the dependency of tobacco habit, Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependency Scale for both smoking and smokeless forms of tobacco were used.
Results: Of the 103 responses obtained, 41.7% were males. Participants were in the age group of 14-70 years with a mean age of 43 years. Almost half of the respondents cleaned their teeth twice daily. About 53% of people cleaned their teeth using fingers. Toothpowder and rice husks were the commonly used materials for cleaning teeth (64%) followed by toothpaste (35.9%). It was observed that the prevalence of tobacco use in this population was 73.8%. Majority of the respondents (92%) used smokeless forms of tobacco. The mean scores of nicotine dependency for smoked tobacco was 3.85 (± 2.7) and that for smokeless form was 4.61 (± 2.17). Both these scores denote moderate dependency of tobacco use. The average age of onset of tobacco use was 16.41 years for smoked and 17.53 years for smokeless forms.
Conclusions: The prevalence of tobacco consumption was found to be high among both males and females in the tribal population. Majority of them consumed different forms of smokeless tobacco


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