Reach Us +447482874092


Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
Reliability Measures of Subcutaneous Pressure Pain Threshold Measurements: A Proposed Method of Assessing Painful Musculoskeletal Disorders | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2165-7025

Journal of Novel Physiotherapies
Open Access

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Research Article

Reliability Measures of Subcutaneous Pressure Pain Threshold Measurements: A Proposed Method of Assessing Painful Musculoskeletal Disorders

George Georgoudis1*, Jacqueline Oldham2, Paul J Watson3 and Eirini Grammatopoulou1
1School of Physiotherapy, Technological Educational Institution of Athens, Athens, Greece
2Graduate School of Medicine, Manchester, UK
3University of Leicester, College of Medicine, Biological Sciences, and Psychology, UK
Corresponding Author : George Georgoudis
School of Physiotherapy
Technological Educational Institution of Athens
Athens, Greece
Tel: 302104014920
E-mail: [email protected]
Received October 15, 2014; Accepted November 20, 2014; Published November 27, 2014
Citation: Georgoudis G, Oldham J, Watson PJ, Grammatopoulou E (2014) Reliability Measures of Subcutaneous Pressure Pain Threshold Measurements: A Proposed Method of Assessing Painful Musculoskeletal Disorders. J Nov Physiother 4:234. doi: 10.4172/2165-7025.1000234
Copyright: © 2014, George Georgoudis, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Background: Pressure algometry is a widely used method aiming to investigate deep tissue mechanical pain threshold in painful musculoskeletal disorders. Considering from the literature the input of skin and subcutaneous tissue in the determination of pressure pain threshold, and the distinctive role in clinical setting of the subcutaneous pressure threshold measurement(sPPT), it becomes necessary to investigate the reliability of the sPPT measurements. This study examines the short and longer-term intra-examiner reliability of sPPT measurements.

Methods: Thirty subjects were examined at 3 pre-determined time intervals, in various parts of the body, by the same examiner in the same clinical setting. Short (between days) and longer-term (after a week) test-retest reliability was investigated. A number of statistical procedures was computed: ICC, ANOVA, standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest detectable difference (SDD) and confirmatory scatterplots.

Results: The ICC statistic reached good to excellent levels for both types of reliability (0.70 – 0.97). ANOVA produced non-significant differences at all measurements. SEM gave a satisfactory overall mean value of 6.07 kPa (short-term) for all measuring sites (range: 3.2-10.1) and similarly for the longer-term reliability (Mean=6.2, range:3.1-11.2). SDD were satisfactory in the majority of the measurements [short: Mean=11.76, range: 5.9-20, longer: Mean=12.0, range: 6.5-22] but relatively high in some measuring sites, nevertheless fully acceptable and safely within the pressure algometry limits as defined in the literature.

Conclusions: Subcutaneous pressure threshold measurement is a reliable to reproduce with stable results procedure, either for short or longer periods of time (from 1 to 7 days), across the whole body (upper – lower body),by the same examiner. Its fluctuation in absolute values is within the literature limits of deep pressure algometry.