Remediation of Escravous Crude Oil Contaminated Soil Using Activated Carbon from Coconut Shell
- *Corresponding Author:
- MD Ibrahim
Faculty of Engineering and Engineering
Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering
Abubakar Tafawa-Balewa University
Yelwa Campus, Bauchi State, Nigeria
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: April 14, 2016; Accepted date: August 05, 2016; Published date: August 08, 2016
Citation: Ibrahim MD, Shuaibu R, Abdulsalam S, Giwa SO (2016) Remediation of Escravous Crude Oil Contaminated Soil Using Activated Carbon from Coconut Shell. J Bioremediat Biodegrad 7:365. doi:10.4172/2155-6199.1000365
Copyright: © 2016 Ibrahim MD, et al. This is an open-a ccess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Environmental pollution is one of the major hazards facing humanity in the quest for energy today. In Nigeria, the activities of oil exploration and exploitation have repeatedly exposed the environment to the effect of hydrocarbon spill. This research work was carried out to investigate the potential of activated carbon produced from coconut shell to treat Escravous crude oil contaminated soil, by varying pollutant dosage, adsorbent dosage and time. The present study has clearly demonstrated that activated carbon from coconut shell (ACCS) can be used to significantly enhance the rate of degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon in the soil when homogenized with water in a ratio of 20 w/w and studied under an atmospheric temperature. A significant degradation was achieved after 32 days of the remediation process. When the soil to ACCS ratio and crude oil to ACCS were 48 w/w, and 1 mL/g respectively, (AX1) sample code had a ratio of crude to ACCS as 1:1, which reduces the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) from 43.56 to 18.78 residue (mg/L). TPH was also observed to reduce to 2.83 mg/L from initial concentration of 28.92 mg/L when ratio of crude oil to ACCS was 1:1.5 (BX1) sample code, while reduction in THP of 13.63 mL was achieved with 0.5:1.5 ratio of crude oil to ACCS (CX1) sample code. The three (3) results had their rate and percentage of remediation for AX1, BX1, and CX1 as 0.77, 0.82 and 0.43 (mg/L)/day and 56.88%, 90.22% and 92.97% respectively. BX1 approach with the ratio of 1:1.5 has the high rate and percentage remediation more promising compared to AX1 and CX1. Lead which is a big treat to both plants and animals was almost reduced to a Zero (0) percentage.