Role of GPR40 for Fish Oil PUFA-mediated BDNF Synthesis in the Monkey Hippocampus
- Corresponding Author:
- Tetsumori Yamashima
Department of Restorative Neurosurgery
and Psychiatry, Kanazawa University Graduate
School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: January 25, 2016; Accepted date: February 29, 2016; Published date: March 07, 2016
Citation: Mathivanan A, Minabe Y, Ota T, Nagata N, Shima KR, et al. (2016) Role of GPR40 for Fish Oil PUFA-mediated BDNF Synthesis in the Monkey Hippocampus. J Alzheimers Dis Parkinsonism 6:213. doi:10.4172/2161-0460.1000213
Copyright: © 2016 Mathivanan A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are known to be crucial for learning and memory. However, the detailed mechanism of PUFA effects upon neuronal functions remains almost unknown except for the possible facilitation of membrane fluidity. G-protein coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) was found to induce Ca2+ mobilization in response to diverse PUFA. Thereafter, the authors found GPR40 expression in the newborn neurons of the monkey hippocampus after ischemia. This suggested implications of PUFA-mediated GPR40 signaling for adult neurogenesis underlying learning and memory.
Objective: This study aims at evaluating whether PUFA-mediated GPR40 activation can affect synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with the aid of its proteolytic enzyme furin.
Methods: Monkeys underwent 20 min transient whole brain ischemia by clamping both the innominate and left subclavian arteries. On days 7 and 15 after ischemia/reperfusion, when adult neurogenesis was shown to be maximal previously by the authors, the brain samples were resected. By the Western blotting analysis of mature-BDNF (m-BDNF), pro-BDNF and furin, syntheses of BDNF in response to two GPR40 agonists as well as selective GPR40 antagonist GW1100, were studied using normal and post-ischemic monkey dentate gyrus (DG) tissue extracts.
Results: Both up-regulation of m-BDNF synthesis in response to two GPR40 agonists; fish oil PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and its down-regulation in response to GW1100, were observed. GPR40 antagonist inhibited m-BDNF synthesis, whereas two GPR40 agonists stimulated m-BDNF synthesis conceivably via furin activation. Cleavage of p-BDNF to m-BDNF by furin as well as syntheses of m-BDNF and furin in the DG tissues, occurred immediately after incubation with fish oil PUFA or DHA. Dynamic changes of GPR40, m-BDNF synthesis, and furin occurred simultaneously.
Conclusions: These data, although correlative, suggested that m-BDNF may be synthesized by the cleavage of pre-stocked pro-BDNF and/or released from the cell store in response to PUFA. By activating GPR40 and furin, PUFA may be related to adult neurogenesis and the concomitant synaptic plasticity for learning and memory. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting a role of GPR40 in PUFA-mediated m-BDNF synthesis.