Secular Trends of Adiposity and Motor Abilities in Preschool Children
|Jana PaÅízková1, Petr Sedlak2, Hana DvoÅáková3*, Lidka Lisá3 and Pavel Bláha3|
|1Obesity Management Centre, Institute of Endocrinology, Národní 8 Prague, Czech Republic|
|2Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic|
|3Faculty of Education, Charles University in Prague, M Rettigové 4, Prague 1, Czech Republic|
|Corresponding Author :||Hana DvoÅáková
Faculty of Education
Charles University in Prague
M Rettigové 4, Prague 1, 110 00 Czech Republic
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received October 02, 2012; Accepted November 26, 2012; Published November 28, 2012|
|Citation: PaÅízková J, Sedlak P, DvoÅáková H, Lisá L, Bláha P (2012) Secular Trends of Adiposity and Motor Abilities in Preschool Children. J Obes Wt Loss Ther 2:153. doi:10.4172/2165-7904.1000153|
|Copyright: © 2012 PaÅízková J, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
Height, weight, BMI and triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses and of motor performance (20 m run, broad jump from the spot, and ball throw by right hand) were repeatedly measured over six decades in several age groups of Czech preschool children (4-6 years). The first study compared results of the measurements in the 1950s (n=268) and in 2009 (n=188), and then further measurements of height, weight, and skinfolds were conducted in two kindergartens with different physical activity programs in the 1970s (n=151) and in 2011 (n=79). When comparing the
last century’s results and recent measurements, the average height and weight increased slightly in both studies, and BMI values fluctuated insignificantly around the 50th percentile of the present Czech growth grids for BMI. A significant increase of the values of skinfold thickness was mostly found; along with that results of the broad jump and ball throw (abilities which need some experience and adaptation) decreased significantly, and performance in the 20 m run did not change. The increase of adiposity was lower in the kindergarten with a program of increased physical activity. Gender differences in preschoolers were always found at the occasion of all measurements: adiposity in girls was slightly higher, and motor performance was always lower. A secular change of lifestyle with prevailing sedentarism worsened motor abilities along with increasing adiposity, and a positive effect of increased physical activity had a significant impact on adiposity already during the preschool age.
What is already known about this subject: The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in the industrially developed and transitional countries, and also in selected groups of developing countries since the middle of the last century resulting, inter alia, from increasing sedentarism. Adiposity has been enhanced in the general population of school children and adolescents, along with a decreasing level of physical fitness and motor abilities.
What this study adds: This study adds original information on secular changes during the last sixty years on adiposity and motor abilities in preschool children; this age group has been less studied up to the present, as more difficult to be followed up by complex programs of adiposity and motor abilities measurements.