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Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Enhance Cognition and Functioning in Schizophrenia | OMICS International | Abstract

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Review Article

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Enhance Cognition and Functioning in Schizophrenia

Mary T Rosedale*, Melissa Jacobson, Mary D Moller, Mark GA Opler, Nancy Buccola, Shiela M Strauss, Johnna Wu, Candice Knight and Dolores Malaspina
College of Nursing, New York University, New York, NY, USA
Corresponding Author : Mary T Rosedale
NYU College of Nursing
726 Broadway, 10th floor, New York
New York 10003, USA
Tel: 212-998-5300
Fax: 212-995-4679
Received August 29, 2013; Accepted January 16, 2014; Published January 24, 2014
Citation: Rosedale MT, Jacobson M, Moller MD, Opler MGA, Buccola N, et al. (2014) Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Enhance Cognition and Functioning in Schizophrenia. J Nov Physiother 4:191. doi: 10.4172/2165-7025.1000191
Copyright: © 2014 Rosedale MT, et al. This is an open-access article distributedunder the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder with characteristic symptoms, including cognitive impairments that are associated with the illness and its outcome. Cognitive impairments include deficits in processing speed and working memory, inattention, and impaired problem-solving ability. These cognitive insufficiencies are considered to reflect the core of the disorder and to worsen as the disorder progresses, further impairing functioning. Novel approaches to treat cognitive impairments are greatly needed and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a promising modality that may address these cognitive impairments. TDCS is a noninvasive, non-pharmacological neuromodulation technique that has demonstrated efficacy in improving attention processing in normal controls and in persons with diverse pathologies. By modulating cortical excitability, anodal (excitatory) tDCS to the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) may facilitate access to existing PFC neural reserves in people with schizophrenia, potentially improving attention. However, this possibility has been only minimally investigated to date. Because cognitive deficits are the strongest determinant of poor functional outcomes in schizophrenia, the development of novel treatments and the combination of innovative neuromodulation and medication strategies to improve cognition and functional capacity are needed. In addition to reviewing cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, this article discusses the potential of tDCS targeting the PFC in patients. It also describes the use of measurement tools as proposed by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) initiative “Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia” (MATRICS), to improve attention processing and to isolate distinct cognitive disruptions in patients with schizophrenia. Recommendations are made for future research approaches.