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United Kingdom is alsi known as United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland or Britain is a sovereign state in Europe. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance.The capital city of UK is London.
The total area of the United Kingdom is approximately 243,610 square kilometres (94,060 sq mi), occupies the major part of the British Isles archipelago and includes the island of Great Britain, It lies between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea with the south-east coast coming within 22 miles (35 km) of the coast of northern France. In 1993 10% of the UK was forested, 46% used for pastures and 25% cultivated for agriculture. The Longitude and Latitude of UK is 9° W to 2° Eand 49° to 61° N respectively.
The UK has a partially regulated market economy. Based on market exchange rates the UK is today the fifth-largest economy in the world and the second-largest in Europe after Germany. HM Treasury, led by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, is responsible for developing and executing the British government's public finance policy and economic policy. The Bank of England is the UK's central bank and is responsible for issuing notes and coins in the nation's currency, the pound sterling. Banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland retain the right to issue their own notes, subject to retaining enough Bank of England notes in reserve to cover their issue. Pound sterling is the world's third-largest reserve currency (after the US Dollar and the Euro). Since 1997 the Bank of England's Monetary Policy Committee, headed by the Governor of the Bank of England, has been responsible for setting interest rates at the level necessary to achieve the overall inflation target for the economy that is set by the Chancellor each year. The UK service sector makes up around 73% of GDP. England and Scotland were leading centres of the Scientific Revolution from the 17th century and the United Kingdom led the Industrial Revolution from the 18th century, and has continued to produce scientists and engineers credited with important advances. There are 118 Noble Laureates from this country.
Many Physics Journals are published from UK with good reputation and current Research works in Physics in UK includes Astrophysics, Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Atomic and Laser Physics, Condensed Matter Physics, Particle physics, Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics etc. at Oxford University, University of Cambridge, University of Warwick, The University of Manchester, Durham University etc...