Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
Counterfeit Tablet Investigations: Is ATR FT/IR A Technique For The Real World? | 18665
ISSN: 2155-9872

Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
Open Access

Like us on:

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)
Recommended Conferences
Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 3732

Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques received 3732 citations as per Google Scholar report

Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques peer review process verified at publons
Indexed In
  • CAS Source Index (CASSI)
  • Index Copernicus
  • Google Scholar
  • Sherpa Romeo
  • Academic Journals Database
  • Open J Gate
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • JournalTOCs
  • ResearchBible
  • China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)
  • Ulrich's Periodicals Directory
  • Electronic Journals Library
  • RefSeek
  • Directory of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI)
  • Hamdard University
  • OCLC- WorldCat
  • Scholarsteer
  • SWB online catalog
  • Virtual Library of Biology (vifabio)
  • Publons
  • Euro Pub
Share This Page

Counterfeit tablet investigations: Is ATR FT/IR a technique for the real world?

5th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques

Graham Lawson

Keynote: J Anal Bioanal Tech

DOI: 10.4172/2155-9872.S1.016

Counterfeit medicines are introduced as a worldwide problem but with regional emphasis focused on different disease states. The occurrence of counterfeits ranges from 1-2% in the UK to 30-40% in some African countries. According to the WHO counterfeits medicines may have: no active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) present, the wrong level of API, the wrong API, high levels of contaminants or be in counterfeit packaging. The different analytical approaches to identifying counterfeit medicines are discussed in terms of instrumental complexity and analysis time. The usability of the different systems under real world conditions are discussed and lead to the potential of Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) FT/IR techniques to provide rapid quantitative investigations of suspect tablet formulations. ATR FT/IR methods require only that the tablet be crushed prior to analysis providing a considerable time saving over the solvent extraction protocols used by the British Pharmacopoeia. Standard spectra of API plus excipients, from crushed tablets, were recorded for identification purposes and quantitative data was obtained from spectra of calibrated mixtures of the API and excipients. The APIs studied include paracetamol, atenolol, aspirin and caffeine with a range of different excipients. Tablet samples from various countries including India, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and the UK were examined. Initial results showed, the API could be identified down to ca 5% w/w of the tablet. Quantification was linear with selected characteristic peak areas for each API/excipient mixture. The analysis of the tablet samples generally showed good agreement with expectation but there were considerable discrepancies in the levels of API in the atenolol tablets. This was confirmed by conventional extractive analyses. ATR FT/IR can therefore identify counterfeit tablets rapidly without the need for solvents. Whilst LC MS/MS and NMR techniques may be the �gold standards� of the analytical world they are of much reduced value in sub-Saharan African countries whereas a portable ATR FT/IR may prevent the use of counterfeit antimalarial tablets which impact on patient health and contribute to the increase in drug resistant species.

Graham Lawson is a Principal Lecturer in Forensic Analysis in the Leicester School of Pharmacy at De Montfort University. His expertise and research interests lie in the application of various instrumental analytical techniques to the identification and quantification of toxic and other species in a variety of matrices: blood, water, food etc. This has led to the development of micro-analytical methodologies based on LC-MS and LC-HRMS studies (awarded the Royal Society of Chemistry Analytical Methods Prize in 2010) complimented by new ATR FT/IR spectroscopic investigations