Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
Online Glutamate Measurement During Brain Altered Function With Sub Seconds Time Resolution. A New Alternative To Measure Biological Compounds With Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection And The Use Of Enzymatic Reactors | 10152
ISSN: 2155-9872

Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
Open Access

Like us on:

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Online glutamate measurement during brain altered function with sub seconds time resolution. A new alternative to measure biological compounds with laser induced fluorescence detection and the use of enzymatic reactors

4th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques

Alberto Morales-Villagran

ScientificTracks Abstracts: J Anal Bioanal Tech

DOI: 10.4172/2155-9872.S1.013

Glutamate (Glu) constitutes the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. To understand the Glu neurotransmitter functions and their alteration in disease, methods with high temporal resolution are needed. This feature will allow correlating Glu concentrations with normal or brain altered functions. Unfortunately, available methodologies do not have the temporal resolution needed. The microdialysis technique is the most used method to measure the extracellular Glu concentrations. In this procedure, the samples are collected periodically (minutes resolution) and quantified mainly by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). In this work, it is showed a new methodology with high temporal resolution to measure Glu. This method uses glutamate oxidase and Amplex Red, generating a fluorescent derivate (resorufin) that can be optically detected and measured. Microdialysate coming from a probe is mixed with a similar volume of an enzymatic reactor prepared to measure Glu concentration. The mixture is introduced into silica tubing placed inside of an incubation chamber at 37?C to carry out the reaction. A fluorescence cell, located at the end of this tubing, measures fluorescence at 590 nm every two hundred milliseconds, resorufin is excited at 561 nm by a laser beam. Calibration curves were carried out immersing the probe in different Glu concentrations (50-500 uM) a linear regression analysis of 0.998 was obtained. The following experiment was carried out to validate this method. A microdialys was inserted into the hippocampus in adult awake rat. Epileptiform activity was induced administering 4-aminopyridine by reverse microdialysis procedure. Results show that abnormal electroencephalographic activity and glutamate concentrations can be correlated. These results demonstrate that this method has the appropriate sensitivity and temporal resolution to measure Glu in brain structures. This methodology could be easily adapted to measure other neurotransmitters and compounds using enzymatic reactors that generate fluorescence derivate.
Alberto Morales-Villagr?n has a Ph.D. in Basic Biomedical Research (UNAM, Mexico) and he works for the University of Guadalajara since 1987. He is the PI of the Neurophysiology and Neurochemistry Laboratory at the Molecular and Cellular Department, CUCBA, University of Guadalajara. His research is mainly focused in searching new methods and device to monitor brain neurotransmitters. He has published more than 20 papers related with neurotransmitter alterations during epileptiform activity and has a patent granted related in this topic.