Description of the Country: The United States of America (USA) commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, It is a federal republic composed of 50 states. The federal district of Washington, D.C., five major territories, the territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The state of Alaska is in the northwestern part of North America and the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific.
Geography of the country: The United States is the world's third or fourth largest nation by total area (land and water), ranking behind Russia and Canada and just above or below China the populated territories of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana, and US Virgin Islands together cover 9,185 square miles. The Rocky Mountains, at the western edge of the Great Plains, extend north to south across the country, reaching altitudes higher than 14,000 feet in Colorado.
Status of economy, research and development: The U.S. dollar is the currency most used in international transactions and is the world's foremost reserve currency The United States has a mixed economy and the country continues to be one of the world's largest manufacturers. The United States has been a leader in scientific research and technological innovation since the late 19th century. University of Chicago economists agreed, calculating in 2014 that workers in research and development add $5 to the GDP for each dollar they earn but finance industry workers cause the GDP to shrink by $0.60 for every dollar they are paid.
Status about the different subjects in which extensive research is going on: Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract. Pulmonology is considered a branch of internal medicine, and is related to intensive care medicine. Pulmonologists are involved in both clinical and basic research of the respiratory system, ranging from the anatomy of the respiratory epithelium to the most effective treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Scientific research also takes place to look for causes and possible treatment in diseases such as pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer. Numerous medical journals are present but mostly American Association for Respiratory Care is the utmost important.