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Review Article Open Access
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is an ancient disease, discussed 3500 years ago in literature. Vast population worldwide is suffering from this disease and yet it is found to be untreatable. As per WHO statistics 2012, the number of deaths in the world due to T2DM almost reached to 1.5 million. The number of people suffering from T2DM in India is expected to rise from 40.9 million in 2007 to 69.9 million in 2025 due to change in their life style. Of the two types of DM- Type 1 and Type 2, the latter is most common, affecting 80% of DM patients. Modern lifestyle and food habits have been responsible for tremendous rise in the number of patients all over the world. Even though, the symptoms of T2DM are seen in the later stages of life, the onset of the disease occurs quite early. Insulin resistance and β cell dysfunction are the main causative abnormalities. Several mutations in the genes important for glucose homeostasis and β cell development have been related to progress of hyperglycemia, while this progress is related to various metabolic syndromes arising in the patients’ body. Thus, forming a vicious circle of the causes and effects of hyperglycemia interlinked together forming the whole picture of T2DM in the patient. This review discusses these causes and effects at the molecular and cellular levels. The current therapy practices use of oral therapeutic drugs, which controls hyperglycemia and related complications but fails to cure the disease permanently. Hence, stem cell therapy has drawn interest of the researchers in recent times, which seems to be a promising source of remedy for this notorious disease. This review will provide a better understanding of T2DM and associated complications, recent advances in the therapy and the molecular and cellular insights of the disease to the students, clinicians, endocrinologists and diabetologists.
Diabetes mellitus, Stem cell therapy, Molecular markers, Metabolic syndrome, Gene regulation, Diabetes clinical trials, Diabetic neuropathy