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Research Article Open Access
Diarrheal and infectious diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. With the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria, the treatment of these diseases is problematic. This situation stresses the need to search for alternative antibacterial sources notably medicinal plants. The present study aimed to assess the antibacterial activity of three leafy vegetables commonly used to treat diarrheal diseases. Therefore, aqueous and hydro-ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Crateva adansonii, Vernonia amygdalina and Sesamum radiatum were prepared and tested against 12 clinical isolates and 4 reference strains. The antibacterial activities were measured using a microdilution method to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration, Minimal Bactericidal Concentration and the antibiotic power. Susceptibility tests of the extracts were carried out using well diffusion method.
The hydro-ethanolic extracts of the leaves of S. radiatum and C. adansonii and the aqueous extract of S. radiatum had an effective antibacterial effect on the clinical and reference strains isolates. This was supported by Minimal Inhibitory Concentration values ranging between 0.3125 and 5 mg/ml, Minimal Bactericidal Concentration between 0.3125 and 10 mg/ml, a bactericidal power on S. aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas mirabilis A 24974 (reference strains); Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera and Salmonella Typhi (clinical isolates). For the active extracts, the inhibition zone diameters were significantly different (p<0.05) and greater than 9 mm. Extracts of the leaves of S. radiatum showed the best antibacterial effects on the clinical and reference strains isolates, although reference strains and most of the clinical isolates still more sensitive to antibiotics.
Antibacterial activity, Well diffusion, S. radiatum, C. adansonii, V. amygdalina, Antibacterial activity, Well diffusion, S. radiatum, C. adansonii, V. amygdalina