alexa Abstract | Water Pipe Use and the Awareness of its Effect on Oral Health in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
ISSN: 2332-0702

Journal of Oral Hygiene & Health
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Research Article Open Access


Objective: Despite widespread water pipe (WP) use in Saudi Arabia, research on WP use and the awareness of its effect on oral health in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia are limited. This study attempts to calculate the prevalence of WP use and discover the awareness level regarding its effect on oral health in a sample collected from Riyadh City. Method: A total of 602 residents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were selected by cluster sampling from the five largest shopping malls in Riyadh. Data were collected using an Arabic questionnaire with demographic characteristics. Results: The majority of the participants were aware that WP smoking is a risk factor for oral cancer, periodontal diseases, bad taste, tooth and oral tissue staining, and bad breath. However, the prevalence rate of WP use was 16.9% with 95% confidence intervals (14.03% - 20.18%). WP use was more prevalent among the male gender (22.3% in males vs. 10.2% in females, P-value = 0.001), cigarette smokers (38.0% in cigarette smokers vs. 13.8% in non-cigarette smokers, P-value = 0.001), and people who avoided dental visits (31% never visited a dentist, 25.9% had 1-5 visits vs. 13.2% who had 5 or more visits, P-value = 0.001). Conclusion: The primary WP usage in Saudi Arabia came from the male gender, cigarette smokers, and people who avoided dentist visits. Anti-WP smoking interventions that target the male gender and cigarette smokers are needed to prevent WP use among these subjects. Future study may be warranted to move beyond oral health, thoroughly grasp the motives of WP users relative to cardiovascular risk, and lead the way toward creation and implementation of a CVD intervention program.

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Author(s): Nora S Al-Nomay and Anwar E Ahmed


Water pipe smoke, Muassel, Oral health, Cigarette smoke, Saudi Arabia, Oral Health, Oral Hygiene, Dental Research

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