Argentina is a federal republic located in southeastern South America. Argentina, meaning "land of silver," is a rich and vast land—second largest (after Brazil) in South America and eighth largest in the world. Argentina is bordered by the Andes Mountains and Chile to the west. The country is divided into four regions: The Andes, the North, the Pampas, and Patagonia. The people of Argentina are well-educated and 97% of the population can read and write. Argentina is rich in animal species.
Argentina is bordered by the Andes in the west and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, neighboring countries are Chile to the west, Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, and Brazil and Uruguay to the northeast. It has 3,100 miles (4,989km) of coastline. Its landscape is extremely varied, with the top sub-tropical and sun-baked, and its sub-Antarctic bottom tip glistening with icy waters and glaciers. Argentina’s lowest point is Laguna del Carbón in Santa Cruz Province, sitting 105m (344ft) below sea level.
Argentina's economy enjoys valuable natural resources. It is a leading food producer with large-scale agricultural and livestock industries. The country is pursuing an active foreign policy agenda and represents Latin America in the G-20, together with Mexico and Brazil. Argentina’s economy expanded a remarkable 2.1% in 2015, thus accelerating over 2014’s increase. Early in the twentieth century Argentina had one of the highest per capita GDP levels in the world and the third largest economy in the developing world. Research and development in Argentina are concerned with medicine, nuclear physics, biotechnology, nanotechnology, space and rocket technology and several fields related to the country's main economic activities.
The most important aspects of science and technology in Argentina are concerned with medicine, nuclear physics, biotechnology, nanotechnology, space and rocket technology and several fields related to the country's main economic activities. Many other Argentines have contributed to scientific development around the world. Argentina is the Latin American country with the most Nobel Prize laureates; and has three Nobel Prize winners in the sciences: Bernardo Houssay in Physiology or Medicine in 1947, Luis Federico Leloir in Chemistry in 1970, and César Milstein in Physiology or Medicine in 1984. Argentine exports in high-technology are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Argentine scientists are still on the cutting edge in fields such as nanotechnology, physics, computer sciences, molecular biology, oncology, ecology, and cardiology, where Dr. Domingo Liotta created the first artificial heart in 1969, revolutionizing the heart transplant field. According to updated Argentina Surgery journals list there are different surgery journals in in which Argentinian Surgery Resident Journal is one of excellent Surgery journals and it publishes about surgical research in Argentina. The other list of surgery journals in Argentina includes Argentine Journal of General Surgery Residents.