Canada is the second largest country in the world and a nation of great ethnic and cultural diversity. Initially populated by various First Nation tribes and then colonized by the French and British. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. It is a land of vast distances and rich natural resources.
Canada is the second largest country in the world in land area, after Russia. Canada extends from the west coast, across the prairies and central Canada, to the Atlantic provinces. Canada shares a land and sea borders with the USA, Denmark, and France. It has geographical size of 3.9 million square miles. Canada has a very small population, 28 million people, for its geographic size. The highest point in Canada is Mount Logan (19,850 ft; 6,050 m), which is in the Yukon.
Canada has the 11th largest economy in the world and is one of the world's wealthiest nations. Canada is one of the wealthiest states of the world; the gross domestic product (GDP) of Canada is about 1432,140 Billion US dollars, so the state is GDP rank 14 worldwide. In purchasing power parity, Canada is up to 1265.838 billion dollars in 13th place. As in other developed countries the Canadian economy is dominated by the services sector. Expenditures by Canadian corporations on research and development accounted for about 50% of all spending on scientific research and development.
Most major research projects reflect the increasingly interdependent industrial, university, and government laboratories. Nobel Prize winners features the names of 22 laureates who were either born in Canada or gained professional distinction in this country. They have claimed honours in every field for which an award is granted. These include the man who discovered the most common diabetes treatment, a woman hailed as a master of the contemporary short story, and most recently a Nova Scotia physicist partially credited with discovering neutrino oscillations. Frederick G. Banting, won Nobel Prize in 1923 in Medicine for the "discovery of insulin". Canada ranks fourth in the world for the quality of its scientific research, according to a survey of thousands of top international scientists. Canada is in sixth position in the world in Canadian papers cited by other scientists. Eliot Phillipson, the former president and CEO of the Canada Foundation for Innovation found that Canada is a world leader in research on venereal diseases and dermatology, as well as anatomy, astrophysics, general and internal medicine, nuclear and particle physics and zoology. According to updated Canada Surgery journals list there are different surgery journals in Canada in which Canadian Journal of Surgery is one of the best Surgery journals and it publishes about surgical research in Canada. The other list of surgery journals in Canada includes Obesity Surgery, Journal canadien de chirurgie.