China, officially called as the People's Republic of China. The greater part of the country is mountainous. China is the world's most populous country. It has a continuous culture stretching back nearly 4,000 years and originated many of the foundations of the modern world. China is now a major overseas investor, and is pursuing an increasingly assertive foreign and defence policy. China reformed its economy along partly capitalist lines to make it one of the world's fastest-growing, as well its leading exporter.
China is the second-largest country in the world by land area with an area of 9.6 million square kilometers and a coastline of 18,000 kilometers. China is bordered by 14 countries. It has great physical diversity. More recently, the 18,000 km (11,000 mi) coastline has been used extensively for export-oriented trade, causing the coastal provinces to become the leading economic center. It contains part of the highest tableland on earth, the Tibetan Plateau, and has much lower agricultural potential and population.
China's socialist market economy is the world's second largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's largest economy by purchasing power parity according to the IMF. The Chinese economy experienced astonishing growth in the last few decades that catapulted the country to become the world's second largest economy. The country ranked ninth in nominal gross domestic product (GDP) with USD 214 billion. China is the largest trading nation in the world and plays a vital role in international trade, and has increasingly engaged in trade organizations and treaties in recent years. China is forecast to overtake the European Union and the United States in research and development. China has the ambition to spend 2.5% of gross domestic product, or GDP, on research by 2020 – and already spent 1.98% in 2012 and it is not the only country in Asia that has been increasing spending on research and development.
China is now second only to the US in terms of academic papers published, and will take first place by 2020 if current trends continue. The number of peer-reviewed papers published by Chinese researchers in rose 64-fold over the past 30 years. Chinese is now the third-largest producer of research articles, behind only the European Union (EU) bloc and the United States. The number of papers authored by Chinese scientists grew an average of more than 15% annually. Chinese scientists are particularly strong on chemistry and materials engineering, both considered central to the country’s industrial development and economic future. Since 1957, there have been eight Chinese (including Chinese born) winners of the Nobel Prize. Chen-Ning Yang won Noble prize in 1957 in Physics along with Tsung-Dao Lee. According to updated China Surgery journals list there are different surgery journals in china in which Chinese Journal of Surgery (CJS ) is one of excellent and old-line Surgery journals and it publishes about surgical research in China. The other list of surgery journals in china includes Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery, Journal of Orthopedic Surgery.