France, in Western Europe, encompasses medieval and port cities, tranquil villages, mountains and Mediterranean beaches. Paris, its capital, is known worldwide for its couture fashion houses, classical art museums including the Louvre and monuments like the Eiffel Tower. Location of metropolitan France (dark green), In Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green), Territory of the French Republic. The European part of France, called metropolitan France, extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean.
France is about 80% the size of Texas. In the Alps near the Italian and Swiss borders is western Europe's highest point—Mont Blanc (15,781 ft; 4,810 m). The forest-covered Vosges Mountains are in the northeast, and the Pyrénées are along the Spanish border. Except for extreme northern France, the country may be described as four river basins and a plateau. Three of the streams flow west—the Seine into the English Channel, the Loire into the Atlantic, and the Garonne into the Bay of Biscay. The Rhône flows south into the Mediterranean. For about 100 mi (161 km), the Rhine is France's eastern border. In the Mediterranean, about 115 mi (185 km) east-southeast of Nice, is the island of Corsica (3,367 sq mi; 8,721 sq km).
France is in the midst of transition from a well-to-do modern economy that has featured extensive government ownership and intervention to one that relies more on market mechanisms. The government budget deficit rose sharply from 3.4% of GDP in 2008 to 7.8% of GDP in 2010, while France's public debt rose from 68% of GDP to 84% over the same period.
In the field of science, this country produced 67 Nobel laureates so far. Surgery journals are published from France with good reputation. Research and development expenditure (% of gdp) in Surgery journals france was last measured at 2.26 in 2012, according to the world bank. Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work, france Surgery journals list undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&d covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development. it has long way to go to be a leader in international collaboration compared to France Surgery journals list and developing countries.