South Africa is a country on the southernmost tip of the African continent, marked by several distinct ecosystems. Inland safari destination Kruger National Park covers vast shrublands populated by big game; the Western Cape encompasses lush winelands around Stellenbosch and Paarl, wild beaches, craggy cliffs at the Cape of Good Hope, forest and lagoons along the Garden Route, and the city of Cape Town, beneath flat-topped Table Mountain.
South Africa occupies the southern tip of Africa, its long coastline stretching more than 2 500km from the desert border with Namibia on the Atlantic coast, southwards around the tip of Africa, then north to the border with subtropical Mozambique on the Indian Ocean. The low-lying coastal zone is narrow for much of that distance, soon giving way to a mountainous escarpment that separates it from the high inland plateau. In some places, notably the province of KwaZulu-Natal in the east, a greater distance separates the coast from the escarpment.
Ranked by the World Bank as an “upper middle-income country”, South Africa is the second largest economy in Africa after Nigeria. In 2014, the World Bank listed its GDP at $350.1-billion (R5.416-trillion) and its population at 54 million. Per capita GDP is $6 483, according to the World Economic Forum. The country remains rich with promise. It was admitted to the BRIC group of countries of Brazil, Russia, India and China (now known as BRICS) in 2011.The latest R&D survey shows that South Africa spent R23.871 billion on research and development (R&D) in 2012/13. In nominal terms, this is 7.5% more than R22.209 billion reported in 2011/12.
SOUTH Africa’s spending on research and development (R&D) as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) has bottomed out after four years of steady decline. Science and Technology Minister Derek Hanekom sees this as a sign that improvement is imminent according to list of Surgery journals South Africa. Science and technology is critical to the future of South Africa. Government recognises the key role it plays in providing an enabling environment for innovation and research and in building the human capital that we require for the future knowledge economy seen in South Africa Surgery journals list. Since the publication of the White Paper in 1996, there have been important changes in our system of innovation found in Surgery journals South Africa. Institutions and their programmes are better aligned to our National needs. Based on list of Surgery journals The Innovation Fund has created stronger innovation networks, and programmes such as the GODISA Innovation and Incubator Programme and the Tsumisano Technology Stations Programme have begun to strengthen technology diffusion and harness the entrepreneurship of the Science and Technology community. The winner is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, on behalf of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel's estate, and awarded to whoever "shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses" listed in Surgery journals.