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The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. Its capital city is London, an important global city and financial centre with an urban population of 10,310,000, the fourth-largest in Europe and second-largest in the European Union. The current monarch—since 6 February 1952—is Queen Elizabeth II. The UK consists of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The U.K., made up of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, is an island nation in northwestern Europe. England – birthplace of Shakespeare and The Beatles – is home to the capital, London, a globally influential centre of finance and culture. England is also site of neolithic Stonehenge, Bath’s Roman spa and centuries-old universities at Oxford and Cambridge.The United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. The UK is considered to have a high-income economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index, currently ranking 14th in the world.
The UK is an island nation in Western Europe just off the coast of France. The mainland areas lie between latitudes 49°N and 59°N and longitudes 8°W to 2°E. The UK lies between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea, and comes within 35 km (22 miles) of the northwest coast of France, from which it is separated by the English Channel. Northern Ireland shares a 360 km international land boundary with the Republic of Ireland. The Channel Tunnel bored beneath the English Channel, now links the UK with France. The United Kingdom, consisting of Great Britain (England, Wales, and Scotland ) and Northern Ireland , is twice the size of New York State. England, in the southeast part of the British Isles, is separated from Scotland on the north by the granite Cheviot Hills; from them the Pennine chain of uplands extends south through the center of England, reaching its highest point in the Lake District in the northwest. To the west along the border of Wales—a land of steep hills and valleys—are the Cambrian Mountains, while the Cotswolds, a range of hills in Gloucestershire, extend into the surrounding shires.
In the UK, the ONS also lists Research Councils as a separate research performing category. This category is included in the government sector in international comparisons. In 2013, gross domestic expenditure on R&D in the UK was £28.9 billion, or 1.67% of GDP. Between 1985 and 2013 GERD grew by 52% in real terms, but because it has not grown as fast as the economy as a whole it has fallen as a proportion of GDP from 2.01% to 1.67%. UK R&D spending overall fell 3% when adjusted for inflation to £27bn in 2012, according to the Office for National Statistics, as both government and business investment fell. It amounted to 1.72% of gross domestic product, lower than the 2.06% equivalent for the EU, and far short of the target to increase UK R&D investment to 2.5% of GDP by 2014, established by the previous Labour government.
The UK excels in research, development and innovation research is at the heart of the UK’s growth, prosperity and wider wellbeing. Public investment in science and research is an investment in the nation’s future, ensuring that the UK has a productive economy, healthy society and contributes to a sustainable world.R&D organisation attracts scientists from most disciplines including chemists, biologists, statisticians, Surgery journals United Kingdom, pharmacologists, microbiologists, surgery journals. Established in 2002 following a Government review the Research Councils UK (RCUK) is a Non-Departmental Government Body whose purpose is to manage a strategic partnership between seven individual research councils that coordinate and fund research in the arts, humanities, science and United Kingdom Surgery journals list. It enables the Councils to work together more effectively to enhance the overall impact and effectiveness of their research, training, and list of Surgery journals. Although Sweden's papers were relatively basic. Its papers were also the most cited on clinical guidelines, but contained relatively few reviews, where the UK, Greece, and Belgium scored best. Surgical oncology papers are generally not well cited compared with cancer research overall, but on this measure the Netherlands, the US, and Sweden scored best. International collaboration with support from list of surgery journals united kingdom.