The U.S. is a country of 50 states covering a vast swath of North America, with Alaska in the extreme Northwest and Hawaii extending the nation’s presence into the Pacific Ocean. Major cities include New York, a global finance and culture center, and Washington, DC, the capital, both on the Atlantic Coast; Los Angeles, famed for filmmaking, on the Pacific Coast; and the Midwestern metropolis Chicago. The United States is a developed country and has the world's largest national economy by nominal and real GDP, benefiting from an abundance of natural resources and high worker productivity.Moreover, it ranks among the top 10 in the world in several measures of economic well-being, including average wage, Human Development Index, and per capita GDP. While the U.S. economy is considered post-industrial, the country continues to be one of the world's largest manufacturers. Accounting for 34% of global military spending and 23% of world GDP, it is the world's foremost military and economic power, a prominent political and cultural force, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
The United States shares land borders with Canada (to the north) and Mexico (to the south), and a territorial water border with Russia in the northwest, and two territorial water borders in the southeast between Florida and Cuba, and Florida and the Bahamas. The contiguous forty-eight states are otherwise bounded by the Pacific Ocean on the west, the Atlantic Ocean on the east, and the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast. Alaska borders the Pacific Ocean to the south, the Bering Strait to the west, and the Arctic Ocean to the north, while Hawaii lies far to the southwest of the mainland in the Pacific Ocean. The eastern United States has a varied topography. A broad, flat coastal plain lines the Atlantic and Gulf shores from the Texas-Mexico border to New York City, and includes the Florida peninsula. Areas further inland feature rolling hills and temperate forests. The Appalachian Mountains form a line of low mountains separating the eastern seaboard from the Great Lakes and the Mississippi Basin.
The National Research Council (NRC) is a private, nonprofit institution in the United States founded in 1916, which produces reports that shape policies, inform public opinion, and advance the pursuit of science, engineering, and medicine. It is the research arm of, but no member of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, unlike the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering or the National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine). Medical research institutes in the United States, Military research facilities of the United States, Nanoscale Science Research Centers, United States Department of Energy national laboratories, New York University research institutes, Smithsonian Institution research programs, Research institutes in Washington (state), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
Worries about anemic U.S. productivity growth are generating new worries about U.S. research and development growth with support from list of surgery journals United States. There’s not enough of either, say myriad economists,researchers, and United States Surgery journals list; the slump in R&D may be contributing to the lag in productivity, some say. And last week the U.S. House of Representatives sharpened concerns by passing a controversial rewrite of the America COMPETES Act that would reprioritize and cut federal research funding. In 2014, ten countries will spend about 80% of the total $1.6 trillion invested on R&D around the world; the combined investments by the U.S., China and Surgery journals United States will account for more than half of the total. Together, from the list of Surgery journals U.S., China, Japan and Europe account for about 78% of 2014’s $1.6 trillion total that focuses on surgery journals.